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Full text of "Chronologies of major developments in selected areas of international relations"

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS COMMIXEgJE PRINT 

Chronologies of^ajor ..^^ 
Developments in Selec'te^Mri^as 
of International Relations 



Cumulative Edition, 1976 




Arms Control 1 

Energy — International Aspects . , . . 19 

Indochina 27 

Middle East 35 

U,S, 'Western European Relations . . , 79 

U ,S, 'Soviet-Chinese Relations .... 95 

Southern Africa 113 

Cyprus 141 



81-813— O 



COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 



THOMAS E. MORGAN, 
CLEMENT J. ZABLOCKI, Wisconsin 
L. H. FOUNTAIN, North Carolina 
DANTE B. FASCELL, Florida 
CHARLES C. DIGGS, Jr., Michigan 
ROBERT N. C. NIX, Pennsylvania 
DONALD M. FRASER, Minnesota 
BENJAMIN S. ROSENTHAL, New York 
LEE H. HAMILTON, Indiana 
LESTER L. WOLFF, New York 
JONATHAN B. BINGHAM, New York 
GUS YATRON, Pennsylvania 
ROY A. TAYLOR, North Carolina 
MICHAEL HARRINGTON, Massachusetts 
LEO J. RYAN, California 
DONALD W. RIEQLE, JR.. Michigan 
CARDISS COLLINS, Illinois 
STEPHEN J. SOLARZ, New York 
HELEN S. MEYNER, New Jersey 
DON BONKER, Washington 
GERRY E. STUDDS, Massachusetts 



Pennsylvania, Chairman 
WILLIAM S. BROOMFIELD, Michigan 
EDWARD J. DERWINSKI, Illinois 
PAUL FINDLEY, Illinois 
JOHN H. BUCHANAN, Jr., Alabama 
J. HERBERT BURKE, Florida 
PIERRE S. DU PONT, Delaware 
CHARLES W. WHALEN, Jr., Ohio 
EDWARD G. BIESTER, Jr., Pennsylvania 
LARRY WINN, Jr., Kansas 
BENJAMIN A. OILMAN, New York 
TENNYSON GUYER, Ohio 
ROBERT J. LAGOMARSINO, California 



John J. Bradt. Jr., Chief of Staff 
JOBN H. SULUTAS, Scmior Staff Gomtmltant 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.65 



FOREWORD 



The need for up-to-date factual information about international events and 
developments is implicit in the legislative responsibility of the Committee on 
International Relations and, indeed, of the Congress itself. 

To help fill that need, the committee through the years has published a 
variety of documents which catalog world happenings in chronological order. 
For the most part those chronologies have been prepared for the committee 
by the Foreign Aflfairs Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of 
Congress. 

Unfortunately, past chronologies proved to be of limited usefulness because 
they appeared annually or even less frequently. The clear requirement was 
for information which was relatively current and available for ready 
reference. 

As a result, the committee has requested the Foreign Affairs Division 
to prepare for it monthly chronologies of significant international events in a 
few selected areas of particular interest. Currently, these areas are : arms con- 
trol, energy, Indochina, the Middle East, U.S.-Western European relations, 
U.S. -Soviet-Chinese relations. Southern Africa, and Cyprus. Chronologies are 
submitted to the committee in the first workweek following the month covered, 
and are published by the committee each month in a cumulative edition for the 
period beginning January 1 of the current calendar year. 

Analysts are cited in a footnote at the beginning of each chronology. 

A new document will be begun in January 1977. At that time the areas to 
be covered will be reviewed in order to determine if new topics should be 
selected, or old topics eliminated. 

Through these constantly updated chronologies it is hoped that a sub- 
stantial amount of current, pertinent information can be provided to com- 
mittee members and other interested Members of Congress. 

Thomas E. Morgan, 
Chairman, Committee on International Relations. 
(m) 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/chsofmaOOIibr 



ARMS CONTROL^ 



January 1 — ^The New York Times reported that an article in Pravda denied 
that the Soviet Union had been violating the Strategic Arms Limitation 
Agreement of 1972 and contended that the Soviet Union was not to 
blame for any delay in achieving further strategic arms limitations. 

January 4 — The New York Times reported that as a result of secret nego- 
tiations in London, seven nuclear exporting countries (the United States, 
the Soviet Union, France, West Germany, Great Britain, Canada, and 
Japan) were near agreement on improving safeguards in importing 
countries to prevent diversion of peaceful nuclear activities to military 
use. 

January 14 — Secretary of State Kissinger held a press conference, where he 
announced that he would be going to Moscow to discuss the strategic 
arms limitations talks (SALT) and the situation in Angola. He said 
that the United States had received assurances from the Soviets that 
they were "prepared to modify their last position" at SALT. 

January 14 — In an address to the Pugwash Conference of International 
Scientists, Indian Prime Minister Gandhi said that India would not 
give up nuclear explosions as experiments in the peaceful uses of nuclear 
energy. 

January 18 — As reported in the New York Times, an article in Pravda 
indicated that the Soviet Union considered achievement of a new SALT 
agreement essential to continuing good United States-Soviet relations. 

January 19 — The Senate Government Operations Committee opened hear- 
ings on the export of nuclear technology and its possible contribution to 
nuclear weapons proliferation. The first chairman of the Atomic Energy 
Commission, David Lilienthal, testified and suggested a temporary em- 
bargo on U.S. exports until an agreement could be concluded to ensure 
control over proliferation. Hearings were also held on January 20, 29, 
and 30. 

January 21 — In his annual budget message to the Congress, the President 
called for a rise in the defense budget for fiscal 1977 to reverse an 
inflationary erosion in U.S. defense programs. He projected a rise in 
outlays representing an annual 2 percent growth over the next 
5 years. The budget proposed no new major weapons programs for 
fiscal 1977, although it did plan for production of the new B-1 strategic 
bomber. 

January 22 — In Moscow, Secretary of State Kissinger ended 2 days of 
talks with Soviet leaders on proposals to break the stalemate in SALT. 

January 25— In Brussels, Secretary of State Kissinger met with NATO 
officials and discussed his recently concluded talks with the Soviet Union. 
He said that the new SALT proposals presented "prospects for reduc- 

1 Prepared by Leneice N. Wu, Analyst In International Relations. 

(I) 



2 



tions" in strategic nuclear weapons. Press reports indicated that the 
Soviets had proposed a lowering of the Vladisvostok ceiling of 3,400 to 
2,200 strategic nuclear delivery vehicles. 
January 23 — ^The People's Republic of China conducted a nuclear test 
explosion in the atmosphere with a yield of less than 20 kilotons. 

January 28 — The strategic arms limitation talks (SALT) reconvened in 
Geneva. 

January 29 — During hearings before the Senate Goverrmient Operations 
Committee, a State Department witness said that South Korea had can- 
celed plans to buy a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant from France. Subse- 
quently, the New York Times reported that an unnamed Korean official 
attributed the cancellation to American pressures to discourage the 
purchase. 

January 30 — During hearings before the Senate Government Operations 
Committee, General Accounting Office investigators testified that there 
was no evidence to prove that International Atomic Energy Agency 
(IAEA) safeguards had prevented diversion of material from peaceful 
nuclear facilities to weapons development. 

January 31 — The Baltimore Sun reported that seven nuclear exporting 
countries had reached agreement on uniform standards for sale of peace- 
ful nuclear facilities and fuel. The text of the agreement is secret. 

February 1 — In an appearance on "Face the Nation," Secretary of Defense 
Rumsfeld said that the United States should spend enough on defense 
to maintain a "rough equivalence" with the Soviet Union. He maintained 
that the U.S. defense budget had been held as low as possible and that 
further spending would be necessary if SALT failed. 

February 3 — In a report to the Senate Defense Appropriations Subcom- 
mittee, the Pentagon's Research Director, Malcolm Currie, said that the 
United States had underestimated the Soviet research and development 
effort. He also disclosed that the Soviets had been testing a maneuver- 
able reentry vehicle (MARV) for submarine launched missiles and may 
be developing them for their land-based missile force. MARV is regarded 
as the next generation of strategic weapons succeeding multiple inde- 
pendently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRV's). 

February 3 — The New York Times reported that, under the arms control 
impact statement provision of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act 
(Public Law 94-141), the Defense Department was considering 20 
possible weapons programs which might fall under the new require- 
ment. Reportedly, the Department of Defense and the Arms Control and 
Disarmament Agency (ACDA) would submit their views to the Na- 
tional Security Council (NSC), which would submit the reports to 
Congress. 

February 3 — In a speech in San Francisco, Secretary of State Kissinger 
said that in the absence of a SALT agreement the United States might 
have to spend $20 billion for expanding its strategic weapons programs, 
such as the B-1 bomber and the Trident submarine program. He also 
called "irresponsible" the charges that the administration had tolerated 
SALT violations and denied that this would occur. 



3 



February 6 — In a news conference, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that 
air-launched cruise missiles could be useful in enhancing U.S. strategic 
bomber capability. 

February 7 — In testimony before the Joint Atomic Energy Committee, Sec- 
retary of State Kissinger urged Congress to approve legislation to 
expand U.S. uranium enrichment facilities, whether government or 
private, and he later told reporters the expansion was necessary to meet 
foreign competition in fuel exports. 

February 8 — In an interview in the Christian Science Monitor, President 
Ford said that he was optimistic about the outcome of SALT II and that 
the United States planned to submit "some suggestions for agreement 
within the next month." 

February 10 — Air Force Secretary Thomas Reed said that the air-launched 
cruise missiles might not be effective against Soviet air defenses but 
would be useful until the U.S. B-1 bomber was fully deployed. He stated 
that the missile should not be limited by SALT. 

February 12 — Senator William Proxmire announced that a coalition of 25 
public interest groups were organizing to lobby against the B-1 bomber. 
Proxmire pledged to propose an amendment in the Defense Appro- 
priations Subcommittee to strike requested funds for the plane. 

February 12 — In Nevada, the United States conducted an underground 
nuclear weapon test. 

February 15 — The Washington Post reported that in Moscow, U.S. and 
Soviet negotiators were meeting daily to establish limitations on 
peaceful nuclear explosions under the 1974 Threshold Test Ban Treaty. 
The treaty is scheduled to go into effect March 31, 1976. 

February 16 — ^The Senate approved an amendment to S. 2662, the Inter- 
national Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act, which pro- 
vides $1 million to the IAEA for safeguards of nuclear facilities. 

February 24 — The Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Arms Con- 
trol concluded 2 days of hearings concerning the secret agreement 
among nuclear supplier nations. Administration testimony revealed that 
an important element of the agreement is the application of safeguards 
to states which are not parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) . 
The details of the agreement are contained in exchanges of letters among 
the governments involved. 

February 24 — The New York Times reported that in an interview the Chair- 
man of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), William Anders, 
said that a U.S. embargo on the export of nuclear materials and tech- 
nology would be "irrational and counterproductive." He said that there 
would be greater risk of nuclear weapons proliferation if individual 
nations were forced by a moratorium on exports to develop their own 
nuclear facilities. 

February 25 — During a visit to Ottawa, Pakistani Prime Minister Bhutto 
rejected suggestions by Canada that that country have a role in deter- 
mining safeguards over a nuclear reactor which Pakistan is purchasing 
from France. The Canadian negotiations concern fuel supply and tech- 
nical assistance. 



4 



February 25 — Senators Kennedy, Humphrey, and Javits introduced Senate 
Resolution 399, proposing a United States-Soviet moratorium on flight 
testing of cruise missiles until a SALT agreement is concluded. 

February 26 — The Christian Science Monitor reported that talks on U.S. 
supply of peaceful nuclear facilities to Iran had stalled because of Iran's 
rejection of U.S. conditions attached to the sale. 

February 29 — The New York Times reported that at the nuclear suppliers' 
conference, France and West Germany had rejected U.S. requests to 
halt the export of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. 

February 29 — A ituJy released by two private arms control groups ("World 
Military and Social Expenditures, 1976") concluded that world military 
spending had risen to almost $300 billion annually and was increasing 
most rapidly in developing countries, 

March 1 — At the United Nations, the Ad Hoc Committee on the World 
Disarmament Conference reconvened for its 1976 series of meetings. 

March 2 — The Natural Resources Defense Council, the Sierra Club and 
the Union of Concerned Scientists filed a joint petition with the Nuclear 
Regulatory Commission calling for a ban on the export of 40,000 pounds 
of uranium to India on the grounds that it would contribute to nuclear 
weapons proliferation. 

March 5 — The Air Force announced that its air-launched cruise missile 
(ALCM) had been successfully flight tested for the first time on that day. 

March 9 — The Washington Post reported that the Navy had stopped work on 
its submarine launched cruise missile (SLCM) prototype on the previous 
day. Two weeks earlier, the first flight test of the missile had failed. 

March 9 — In testimony before the Senate Government Operations Com- 
mittee, Secretary of State Kissinger said the United States was making 
the "strongest representations" to nuclear suppliers to halt the export of 
potentially dangerous nuclear facilities to sensitive areas such as Pakis- 
tan. He rejected the suggestion that the United States should join with 
the Soviet Union in a ban on exporting enriched uranium to countries 
which would not meet minimum safeguards. 

March 9 — The President sent a message to the Congress requesting supple- 
mental appropriations for fiscal year 1976, the transition quarter, and 
fiscal year 1977, for the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. 

March 10 — The New York Times reported that Canada and India had signed 
an agreement in which Canada would resume assistance to India, in- 
cluding some nuclear fuel, in exchange for an Indian pledge that none 
of the Canadian-supplied reactors in that country would be used to 
develop a nuclear explosive. 

March 11 — Congressman Clarence Long announced he had introduced leg- 
islation to create a House Select Committee on Nuclear Exports and Nu- 
clear Proliferation. 

March 14— The Boston Globe reported that in the latest American SALT 
proposal, it had been suggested that the issues concerning the U.S. cruise 
missiles and the Soviet Backfire bombers be deferred until a later round 
of talks in order to conclude an agreement based on the Vladivostok 
principles. 



5 



March 14 — ^The New York Times reported that, according to European dip- 
lomatic sources, a follow-up conference of the nuclear suppliers had 
been tentatively scheduled for June 1976, in London and would include 
the original six members and the Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium, Italy, 
East Germany and Poland. 

March 15 — The Washington Post reported a disclosure by Arthur Kranish, 
editor of "Science Trends," that he had learned from the CIA that Israel 
has from 10 to 20 nuclear weapons available for use. On March 16, the 
Israeli Embassy denied the allegation and said it would not be the first 
to introduce nuclear weapons in the Middle East. 

March 15 — In a closed hearing, the Arms Control Subcommittee of the 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee heard testimony from George Vest, 
Director of the State Department's Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs, 
on nuclear weapons nonproliferation, including a report on the nuclear 
suppliers conference. 

March 15 — The United States conducted an underground nuclear weapons 
test in Nevada. 

March 17 — In Nevada, the United States conducted two separate under- 
ground nuclear test explosions. 

March 18 — ^The New York Times reported that, according to high Admin- 
istration officials. United States and Soviet negotiators had almost com- 
pleted an agreement on peaceful nuclear explosions, in connection with 
the Threshold Test Ban Treaty signed by the two countries in July 1974. 

March 22— In Paris, French and Libyan officials signed an agreement under 
which France will build a nuclear power plant in Libya. The French 
made it clear that no weapons-producing facilities would be provided. 

March 25 — ^The Subcommittee on International Security and Scientific 
Affairs of the House International Relations Committee concluded a 
series of hearings on U.S. policy toward first use of nuclear weapons. 
(Earlier hearings had been held on March 16, 18, and 23.) 

March 25 — The New York Times reported that because of strained United 
States-Soviet relations over problems such as Angola, the chances of a 
U.S. visit by Soviet party leader Brezhnev seemed less likely, even if 
a SALT agreement were concluded. Reportedly, the United States was 
still awaiting a Soviet reply to American SALT proposals, forwarded 
earlier in the month. 

March 2& — Senator John Tunney introduced a resolution calling on the 
President to suspend a proposed transfer of enriched uranium to India 
until a public hearing could be held by the Nuclear Regulatory Commis- 
sion (NRC). 

March 29 — In remarks at the Pentagon, President Ford pledged to veto any 
defense spending bill which he thought would be inadequate for U.S. 
national security. 

March 30— ACDA Director Ikle testified in a closed session of the Joint 
Committee on Atomic Energy. 

March 31 — The State Department and the White House issued an announce- 
ment that the United States and the Soviet Union expected to complete 
negotiations to limit peaceful nuclear explosions within the next several 



6 



weeks. The talks were an outgrowth of the 1974 Threshold Test Ban 
treaty limiting weapons tests only ; the earlier agreement had been sched- i 
uled to go into effect on March 31, 1976, an action which apparently 
was deferred pending the outcome of the negotiations limiting peaceful 
nuclear explosions. 

March 31 — ACDA released its annual publication on world military ex- | 
penditures and arms trade which stated that in 1974, the dollar value of ' 
U.S. conventional weapons sales was higher than any other country and j 
that the Soviet Union exceeded the United States in overall weapons i 
spending. j 

March 31 — State Department spokesman Robert Funseth said that the ! 
Soviet Union had replied to the latest U.S. SALT proposal. No further 
details were disclosed. \ 

April 2 — The Soviet Ministry of Defense newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda said I 
that U.S. acquisition of the cruise missile would make it impossible for ! 
a new SALT treaty to be concluded. 

April 2 — France conducted an underground test explosion of a nuclear 
device. 

April 4 — Time magazine reported that in October 1973, Israel assembled 
13 nuclear weapons for possible use during the ongoing conflict at that 
time. ' 

April 6 — The Christian Science Monitor reported that Australia and New > 
Zealand had persuaded other Pacific countries not to pursue discussions j 
of a South Pacific nuclear free zone. ] 

April 9 — The House rejected an amendment to the defense procurement 
authorization bill which sought to prohibit flight testing of MARVs, a 
weapon which has implications for SALT. The House approved the bill. 

April 9 — The United States announced that U.S. and Soviet negotiators had 

completed a proposed text of a treaty which limits the size of peaceful i 

nuclear explosions (PNEs) . It was reported that some provision for on- ; 

site inspection of PNE sites was included in the terms of the agreement. ' 

April 10 — The Navy laid the keel for the first Trident submarine. 

April 11 — The New York Times reported that SALT was deadlocked and \ 
that administration officials were not optimistic that an agreement could 
be reached before the November elections. 1 

April 13 — At the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD) 1 

in Geneva, the United States proposed that there be an arrangement to j 
prohibit further production of chemical weapons and to reduce existing 

stockpiles, as a first step toward a comprehensive ban. > 

April 13 — The Chicago Tribune reported that the Soviet Union had accused ] 
the United States of violating SALT I in four diff'erent areas. 

April 18 — The New York Times reported that early in May, negotiators 

would meet in Tehran to discuss the question of West Germany's sup- ^ 
plying nuclear facilities, including fuel enrichment plants and re- 
processing facilities, to Iran. (The United States does not export these 
types of facilities, as a method of discouraging proliferation of nuclear 
weapons.) ' 



7 



April 21 — In a speech in Washington, President Ford said that SALT offers 
"the best hope for sanity in superpower relations." 

April 21 — Senator John Culver announced that the administration had 
informed him that the United States would not make any initiatives 
to establish an arms control arrangement in the Indian Ocean, as had 
been requested in earlier legislation. 

April 22 — Secretary of State Kissinger said in Washington that the adminis- 
tration hoped to conclude a SALT agreement in 1976, although there 
had been "a certain slowdown in new initiatives" because of the polit- 
ical campaign. 

April 25 — Senator William Proxmire announced that he would make six 
Senate speeches opposing production of the B-1 bomber, and at his 
invitation, the Air Force would reply. He said that the Air Force re- 
sponses would be placed in the Congressional Record. 

April 25 — ^The Washington Post reported that in a recent commentary, the 
Soviet news agency Tass accused the United States of seeking a "unilat- 
eral advantage" at SALT through deployment of cruise missiles. 

April 26 — In a speech in St. Louis, ACDA Director Ikle denied that Presi- 
dential election politics had delayed a SALT agreement. He said the 
two countries had drafted a basic text but had failed to agree on 
some issues dealing with the gray area between strategic and tactical 
capabilities. 

April 26 — The Washington Post reported that in an environmental impact 
statement released by ERDA the previous week, it was stated that the 
United States would not restrict uranium exports as long as the purchas- 
ing country agreed to safeguards against diversion for weapons pur- 
poses. Restricting exports only to NPT parties, the report noted, would 
drive recipients to other suppliers, whose safeguards might not be as 
stringent as those of the United States. 

April 26 — ^The President submitted a request to the Congress for a sup- 
plemental appropriation of $322.4 million over the next 2 fiscal years 
for continued production of Minuteman III ICBMs, which originally 
had been scheduled to end. 

April 28 — At a hearing before the Joint Committee on Defense Production, 
former Defense Department official Paul Nitze testified that because of 
shifts in strategic concepts which take into account the possibility of 
limited nuclear war, the United States should expand its civil defense 
efforts. Former presidential adviser Richard Garwin, opposing civil 
defense expansion, contended that the possibility of controlling a nu- 
clear exchange was dubious. 

April 28 — Both the Senate and the House approved the conference com- 
mittee version of S. 2662, which seeks to enhance the congressional role 
in the U.S. foreign military sales program. 

April 29 — In a press conference in Houston, President Ford said that his 
decision to continue production of Minuteman III missiles was based on 
the "slowdown" in SALT. 

May 3 — ^The House approved House Concurrent Resolution 570, calling for 
prompt conclusion of SALT II, a comprehensive nuclear test ban, and 
making proposals to strengthen safeguards of nuclear facilities. 



8 



May 5 — In Geneva, the current round of SALT negotiations adjourned until 
June 2. 

May 5 — The Senate approved Senate Resolution 406 regarding Soviet- 
American detente, which called for a SALT II agreement and included 
an amendment stating that no SALT agreement should limit U.S. forces 
to levels inferior to those of the Soviet Union. 

May 7 — The President vetoed the International Security Assistance and Arms 
Export Control Act which had contained various new congressional re- 
strictions on the U.S. foreign military sales program. 

May 14 — In an interview, ACDA Director Ikle said that the United States 
would study the idea of an international nuclear transportation service 
as an added safeguard for transporting potentially dangerous nuclear 
materials such as plutonium and enriched uranium. Other proposals to 
be studied include international depositories for nuclear fuel storage, 
disposal of wastes and international fuel fabrication units. 

May 17 — The New York Times reported that during negotiations on a U.S. 
sale of nuclear facilities to Iran, the United States had demanded that 
control of any fuel reprocessing plant in Iran be shared with another 
country as an added safeguard against diversion of the material to weap- 
ons use. (This is a more stringent control than exists now for other U.S. 
bilateral agreements for cooperation in nuclear facilities. Talks on this 
issue are continuing.) 

May 18 — ^The Canadian Foreign Secretary announced that Canada would 
suspend its nuclear cooperation agreements with India until India ac- 
cepted the safeguards of all its nuclear facilities, as proposed by Canada, 
to prevent diversion to weapons use. 

May 20 — The Senate approved an amendment to the military procurement 
authorization bill which would bar funds from being obligated for the 
B-1 bomber prior to February 1, 1977. 

May 24 — The administration announced that the Soviet Union had acknowl- 
edged that it had committed a technical violation of the SALT I agree- 
ment and had moved toward correcting the matter, which involved dis- 
mantling certain SLBMs. 

May 24 — In a speech in San Diego, President Ford criticized the Senate 
action to hold funds for the B-1 bomber until February 1977, and he said 
that by November 1, he would decide whether to move forward with 
production of the plane. 

May 24 — Japan ratified the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear 
Weapons. 

May 26 — The Senate defeated an amendment to the military procurement 
bill which would have deleted funds for continued production of Minute- 
man III missiles; supplemental funding had been requested as a hedge 
against a failure at SALT. The bill passed the Senate on the same day. 

May 27 — A subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee held 
hearings on the proposed sale by General Electric of nuclear reactors to 
South Africa. 

May 28 — In simultaneous ceremonies in Moscow and Washington, Soviet 
party leader Brezhnev and President Ford signed a treaty which sets a 
ceiling of 150 kilotons on an individual underground peaceful nuclear 
explosion. Characterized by a 5-year duration, the treaty provides for 
some onsite inspection of test sites under certain circumstances. 



9 



May 29 — In Paris, the Iranian Prime Minister said that Iran did not 
intend to build nuclear weapons from the plants to be built in that coun- 
try by France. During his visit, the official had signed contracts for two 
French-supplied nuclear facilities. 

May 29 — It was announced in South Africa that the contract for the coun- 
try's nuclear power plant would be awarded to a French company. Nego- 
tiations with a United States-Dutch consortium, originally thought to be 
chosen for supplying the plant, had been suspended. 

May 30 — A study prepared by the Congressional Budget Office concluded 
that the U.S. foreign military sales program saved U.S. military costs 
$560 million last year. 

June 1 — The Nuclear Suppliers Conference, with 11 countries participating, 
reconvened in London. 

June 2 — In Geneva, SALT II reconvened after a month of recess. 

June 4 — During a Habitat Forum Conference in Vancouver, it was 
announced that Cuba would receive a nuclear power reactor from the 
Soviet Union. 

June 5 — The Soviet newspaper Pravda accused the Ford administration of 
not doing enough to work toward a conclusion of SALT. 

June 10 — Senator Abraham Ribicoff said that there were "disturbing indi- 
cations" that the United States had supplied a key ingredient for India's 
nuclear explosion in 1974. 

June 16 — In testimony before the House International Relations Commit- 
tee, Albert Wohlstetter said that the spread of nuclear technology for 
electricity is providing many countries with the capability to acquire 
nuclear weapons. The hearings were on an amendment to the Export 
Administration Act to strengthen safeguards of peaceful nuclear facili- 
ties. On June 7, the committee heard testimony from NRC Commissioner 
Victor Gilinsky and Henry Rowen of Stanford University. 

June 16 — House and Senate conferees on the International Arms Export 
Control Act approved an amendment to cut off military and economic 
assistance to any country that delivers nuclear reprocessing or enrich- 
ment equipment to another country or to any country which receives 
such facilities. 

June 17 — The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 
released its annual report on world armaments, and it concluded that 
the risks of nuclear war had increased because efforts had been made to 
minimize the hazards of such an occurrence. 

June 18 — The Ad Hoc Committee to review the role of the U.N. in disarma- 
ment concluded its general debate. 

June 21 — The NRC approved an export license application for a nuclear 
reactor to Spain. In a rare move, one commissioner, Victor Gilinsky, 
voted against the application because of the potential for weapons acqui- 
sition, since Spain is not a party to the NPT. 

June 25 — The Senate passed an amendment to the ERDA authorization bill 
(H.R. 13350) which would require congressional review prior to export- 
ing nuclear fuel to a country which is not a party to the NPT. 



10 



June 30 — White House Press Secretary Ron Nessen refuted a statement 
made by Soviet party leader Brezhnev the previous day that the United 
States was delaying conclusion of a SALT agreement. 

June 30 — The International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control 
Act became law (Public Law 94-329). Previously vetoed by the Presi- 
dent, the measure includes provisions for more congressional control of 
military sales, a phasing out of military assistance, and cut-offs of aid to 
either suppliers or recipients of nuclear facilities which are not under 
IAEA safeguards. 

July 2 — With one of four commissioners dissenting, the NRC authorized 
the issuance of an export license for part of a uranium shipment to India. 
A decision on the remainder of the material was pending a July 20 hear- 
ing on nonproliferation issues raised by the export. 

July 7 — The Boston Globe reported that efforts were under way within the 
Administration to formulate a new list of options for SALT in an effort 
to achieve agreement before the November Presidential election. 

July 9 — At a press conference. President Ford said that he was still trying 
to achieve agreement at SALT and that he would sign a "good agree- 
ment . . . regardless of political consequences." 

July 11 — The New York Times reported that India was considering alter- 
nate sources of enriched uranium for its nuclear powerplant at Tarapur, 
because of delays in U.S. supplies. An NRC decision on the shipment 
has been delayed by groups opposing the shipments on the grounds that 
there are not adequate safeguards at Tarapur to prevent diversion to 
weapons use. 

July 14 — The President signed the military procurement authorization bill 
for fiscal year 1977 into law (Public Law 94-361). The law authorizes 
funds for initial production of the B-1 bomber. 

July 14 — The U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on a World Disarmament Conference 
concluded its second 1976 series of meetings, and adopted a report to the 
General Assembly which concluded that there was no consensus by the 
nuclear weapons states on the convening of such a conference. 

July 20 — The NRC conducted a hearing on a proposed license to export 
enriched uranium to India. Both opponents and supporters of the export 
testified. 

July 21 — The Senate Appropriations Committee approved an amendment 
to the Defense appropriations bill which would defer production of the 
B-1 bomber until February 1977. 

July 27 — ^The United States conducted an underground nuclear explosion 
with a force between 20 and 150 kilotons. 

July 27 — The President, in a letter to Congressman John Anderson, in- 
formed him that group had been created to review U.S. nuclear policy 
objectives and options, with emphasis on exports, reprocessing, and 
waste management, on both the domestic and international levels. The 
group is led by Robert A. Fri, Deputy Administrator of ERDA. 

July 29 — The President submitted the 1974 Threshold Test Ban Treaty and 
the 1976 treaty on peaceful nuclear explosions to the Senate for its advice 
and consent to ratification. (Executive N, 94-2.) 



11 



July 29 — ACDA issued its 15th annual report to the Congress. The report 
disclosed that the Soviet Union had begun deploying MIRV's on its 
intermediate range missiles aimed at Western Europe and that by 1985 
almost 40 countries could have enough plutonium to make nuclear 
weapons. On the same day ACDA Director Ikle asked the Conference of 
the Committee on Disarmament (CCD) in Geneva to examine ways to 
restrict the international arms trade. 

July 29 — A CBO study for the House Armed Services Committee projected 
that a ban on all U.S. foreign military sales would, by 1981, cause 
U.S. domestic price levels to be 0.2 percent lower and the unemploy- 
ment rate to be 0.3 percent higher than otherwise projected. 

July 30 — In a summary of a classified report, GAO urged that Congress 
give all funds sought by ERDA for physical security of nuclear facilities, 
because of the dangers associated with unauthorized or accidental use of 
special nuclear materials such as plutonium. 

July 30 — The House passed an amendment to the Nuclear Fuel Assurance 
Act (H.R. 8401) which eliminated the sections allowing private industry 
to engage in uranium enrichment activities. The measure is to be recon- 
sidered on August 4. 

July 31 — ^The Washington Post reported that in an interview, ACDA official 
John Lehman said Soviet deployment of intermediate range SS-20 mis- 
siles would have implications for the fate of the U.S. cruise missiles 
in SALT. 

August 3 — ^The United States announced that the Soviet Union had con- 
ducted two underground nuclear explosions during July. On August 5, 
the White House indicated that they may have exceeded the 150-kiloton 
ceiling of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTB), but that they are not 
a violation of that agreement, since it has not entered into force. 

August 4 — The House reversed an earlier vote (see July 30, above) on the 
Bingham amendment to the Nuclear Fuel Assurance Act. The effect of 
the move was to allow private industry to engage in uranium enrich- 
ment activities, thereby ending government monopoly over them. 

August 5 — ^The New York Times reported that France was negotiating with 
South Korea over the sale to that country of its fifth and sixth nuclear 
power reactors. 

August 5 — A subcommittee of the House Interior Committee released testi- 
mony and other materials on security requirements for civilian nuclear 
facilities. Federal officials with access to a GAO classified report said 
the study indicated over 2 tons of plutonium were unaccounted for in 
U.S. civilian reactors. Although it is missing only in the sense that it is 
imbedded in machinery, the study indicated that inventory controls 
were not adequate to meet timely response and recovery, if the material 
were stolen. 

August 5 — The State Department announced that both Egypt and Israel had 
initialed identical agreements with the United States to purchase nuclear 
power reactors. 

August 6 — Following discussions with Secretary of State Kissinger, the 
Shah of Iran said that a multinational nuclear fuel reprocessing plant 
might be acceptable to Iran, but that he would not accept limits on 



12 



his country's sovereignty. The question of the multinational center 
has been in contention during negotiations for the sale of U.S. nuclear 
power reactors to Iran. 

August 6 — The White House announced that the size of Soviet under- 
ground nuclear explosions would no longer be announced by the U.S. 
Government. 

August 8 — Senator Ribicoff made public a letter from Secretary of State 
Kissinger, which indicated that, as a result of a staff review, there 
was high probability that U.S.-supplied heavy water had been used by 
India to produce the plutonium for its 1974 underground nuclear 
explosion. 

August 9 — At the conclusion of talks in Pakistan, Secretary of State 
Kissinger said that Prime Minister Bhutto had agreed to work on an 
arrangement which would insure that material from a nuclear reproc- 
essing plant, to be supplied by France, would not be diverted to the 
development of a nuclear weapon. In an earlier statement, Kissinger 
had indicated that the United States might not sell Pakistan U.S. 
weapons if a compromise over the reprocessing plant could not be 
reached. 

August 11 — The State Department announced that the Soviet Union 
officially denied that its two nuclear explosions conducted in July had 
exceeded 150 kilotons. 

August 12 — At the CCD in Geneva, Great Britain submitted a draft treaty 
to ban chemical weapons. 

August 29 — The Washington Post reported that according to U.S. intelli- 
gence reports, Taiwan was secretly reprocessing spent uranium fuel, 
a process which can produce material for nuclear weapons. On the 
same day, a Taiwanese spokesman denied the report, and said that a 
laboratory was under construction which could reprocess a small 
amount of fuel for research purposes only. 

August 29 — The Soviet Union conducted an underground nuclear test. 
According to the Swedish Seismological Institute, the size of the 
explosive could have been close to 150 kilotons. 

August 31 — In a speech before the Town Hall of California, in Los Angeles, 
ACDA Director Ikle said that Soviet deployment of MIRVed inter- 
mediate range missiles in Europe could jeopardize SALT. 

September 3 — ^The CCD adjourned in Geneva. Among final actions was the 
submission of a U.S.-Soviet draft treaty banning environmental warfare, 
which would be forwarded to the UN General Assembly. 

September 9 — In Geneva, a U.N. group of experts on the reduction of mili- 
tary budgets concluded its final session and adopted a report to the 
General Assembly entitled "The Measurement and International Report- 
ing of Military Expenditures." 

September 10 — The Ad Hoc Committee on the UN Disarmament role con- 
cluded its work with adoption of its report to the General Assembly. 

September 14 — The New York Times reported that President Ford, on the 
basis of a report by a presidential task force on September 7, would issue 
a major statement on U.S. nuclear export policy. (See July 27, above.) 



13 



September 15 — Following a meeting with President Ford in Washington, 
NATO Secretary General Joseph Luns said that the Soviet Union was 
delaying a SALT agreement until after the presidential election. 

September 15 — ^The Committee for Economic Development issued a report 
which recommends continuing U.S. development of nuclear energy but 
calls for an integrated national and foreign policy which will address its 
dangers. 

September 15 — It was announced in Paris that a consortium consisting of 
France, Spain, Italy, Belgium and Iran, had decided in principle to 
construct its second uranium enrichment facility, beginning in 1978. 

September 19 — The Boston Globe reported that unless Soviet Foreign 
Minister Gromyko brought a new Soviet proposal to the U.N. (to con- 
vene later in the month) , it was unlikely that there would be a SALT II 
agreement before the presidential election. Reportedly, discussions 
within the Administration on SALT had come to a standstill. 

September 20 — The President signed into law the defense appropriations 
bill which includes a provision to defer d decision on full production of 
the B-1 bomber until January 1977. 

September 21 — In Geneva, SALT resumed following a summer recess. 
Reportedly the U.S. delegation brought no new proposals to the talks. 
Upon his arrival in Geneva the previous day, chief negotiator U. Alexis 
Johnson said it was hoped to conclude an agreement before the presi- 
dential election 

September 22 — State Department official Arthur Hummel told a Senate 
Foreign Relations subcommittee that the United States would watch 
developments in Taiwan to ensure that U.S. cooperation with that country 
in the field of nuclear energy would not contribute to proliferation. 

September 26 — China announced that it had conducted a nuclear test. 

September 27 — In a press conference. Defense Secretary Rumsfeld said 
that Soviet military strength indicated that that country sought "not to 
be on the losing side," in a nuclear exchange. He added that Soviet 
progress had been consistent with U.S. predictions, and would not 
warrant a change in the current U.S. defense budget. 

September 28 — In a report released by Senator Culver, Secretary of State 
Kissinger said that proposals for worldwide limitation on conventional 
arms exports are "politically infeasible." 

September 28 — A GAO report concluded that Congress should require 
future U.S. agreements for cooperation on nuclear energy to be con- 
tingent upon acceptance of appropriate safeguards to prevent diversion 
to weapons use. 

September 28 — The Joint Atomic Energy Committee eliminated an amend- 
ment to the ERDA authorization bill which would have required con- 
gressional review of nuclear fuel exports. 

September 29 — The Senate defeated a bill which would have allowed private 
industry to engage in uranium enrichment. On the same day the New 
York Times reported that congessional conferees had approved an 
amendment to the Export Administration Act which would prohibit the 
export of equipment for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. 



81-813 O - 77 - 2 



14 



September 30 — During a visit to the U.N., Secretary of State Kissinger 
stated that President Ford would soon outline a three-point program on 
nuclear nonproliferation, in an effort to see strengthened international 
controls on the sale and reprocessing of nuclear fuels. 

September 30 — The New York Times reported that the previous night in 
New York, Secretary of State Kissinger and Soviet Foreign Minister 
Gromyko had held discussions on SALT; both sides offered assurances 
that efforts to limit strategic arms would continue. Gromyko was- 
scheduled to meet with President Ford in Washington on October 2. 

October 3 — Belgian Foreign Minister Van Eslande announced that his 
government, as a result of an apparent shift in third world country at- 
titudes which would favor such proposals, was preparing a U.N. pro- 
posal to limit conventional arms transfers. 

October 5 — The Joint Economic Committee released May 1976 testimony 
of CIA official who stated that the Soviet Backfire bomber is primarily 
a medium range aircraft and should not be covered by SALT. 

October 5 — The New York Times reported that in a memorandum filed 
with the U.N., Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko said his country was 
prepared to discuss on-site inspection to verify a comprehensive nuclear 
test ban. 

October 6 — French President Giscard d'Estaing and the Shah of Iran 
signed an agreement of cooperation for France to build two nuclear 
power reactors in Iran. 

October 8 — The Christian Science Monitor reported that, following a trip 
to Moscow, W. Averell Harriman stated that the Soviet Union was eager 
for a SALT agreement to leading strategic nuclear equivalence with the 
United States. 

October 11 — ^The French Government announced several changes in its 
nuclear export policy in a move which was regarded as a contribution 
to nonproliferation efforts. Among the ideas favored by France were 
multinational fuel recycling centers and cooperation among nuclear 
suppliers. 

October 13 — The State Department announced that while two recent Soviet 
underground nuclear tests were close to the 150 kiloton limit of the 
Threshold Test Ban (TTB) preliminary data indicated that they were 
consistent with the terms of the treaty. Both countries had stated they 
would abide by the terms of the treaty even though it has not entered 
into force. 

October 13 — ^The Wall Street Journal reported that in a classified inter- 
agency report on U.S. nuclear export policy (see July 27, above), 
several agencies had recommended that alternatives to plutonium re- 
processing be explored since that source of reactor fuel was "an unac- 
ceptable proliferation risk." Reportedly, the President had rejected this 
proposal in favor of a demonstration U.S. reprocessing facility. 

October 15 — The Washington Post reported that an unnamed State Depart- 
ment official had said that the Soviet Union had been "chiseling" on the 
TTB Treaty by exploding underground nuclear devices with a yield 
close to the 150 kiloton limit. He also stated that the United States and 



15 



the Soviet Union has gone about 90 percent of the way toward a SALT 
II agreement. Reportedly a major obstacle is agreement within the 
U.S. Government on the U.S. negotiating position. 

October 17 — The People's Republic of China conducted a nuclear test in 
the atmosphere. 

October 28 — The White House released an announcement by the President 
of a new U.S. policy on both domestic and foreign nuclear issues. In- 
cluded in the plan were a proposal for an international moratorium on 
the export of nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities for three years, and 
strengthening the IAEA. It was expected that a proposed U.S. reprocess- 
ing facility in South Carolina might become part of an "evaluation pro- 
gram" suggested in the President's statement. 

November 3 — The New York Times reported that at SALT, the United 
States and Soviet Union had signed two minor agreements, which would 
remain secret. One deals with modernization or replacement of the ABM 
system allowed each country, while the other concerns the direct com- 
munications link between the two countries. 

November 9 — A French Government official said that France would not 
sell any more nuclear reactors to South Africa after two ordered reactors 
are delivered. 

November 9 — The New York Times reported that later in that week the 
nuclear suppliers' conference would reconvene in London. 

November 12 — The New York Times reported that it seemed now that the 
proposed purchase by Pakistan of a French nuclear fuel reprocessing 
plant might not occur. 

November 14 — In a report, a study panel of the United Nations Associa- 
tion recommended a freeze on United States and Soviet military spend- 
ing as a method of controlling the arms race of conventional weapons. 
Other recommendations included a call for agreement to limit the devel- 
opment of long-range cruise missiles. 

November 16 — Brazil stated that its purchase from West Germany of a 
nuclear fuel reprocessing plant would proceed as planned. This was in 
response to a statement by President-elect Jimmy Carter, who said he 
would attempt to block the sale. 

November 16 — The Washington Post reported that the Defense Department 
had approved the sale of 110 A-7 light bombers to Pakistan. Chances 
were good, the report indicated, that the State Department would also ap- 
prove the sale if reports were confirmed that the Pak-French nuclear 
deal was canceled (see November 12, above). 

November 17 — In Washington, three delegates to a joint meeting of the 
American Nuclear Society and the European Nuclear Society said that 
Western Europe and Japan would use plutonium to fuel their nuclear 
power reactors. 

November 17 — China conducted its largest atmospheric nuclear test. 

November 18 — The New York Times reported that South Korea had signed 
a contract with Westinghouse and a British company to buy its second 
nuclear power reactor. 



I 



16 

November 18 — The Baltimore Sun reported that the administration had 
ordered the production of 60 additional Minuteman III missiles, a move 
which postponed an expected halt in production in September 1977. 

November 19 — In a speech before the U.N. General Assembly, ACDA Di- 
rector Ikle proposed that the CCD discuss a ban on radiological ma- 
terials as weapons. 

November 22 — The Washington Star reported that a National Security 

Council study had been prepared for President-elect Jimmy Carter con- | 
taining options for a U.S. response to the Soviet military buildup over 
the next 10-15 years. 

November 23 — Newsweek reported that during 1976 evidence indicated 
that the Soviet Union damaged U.S. space satellites with laser beams. 
The satellites are used to monitor compliance with the SALT agreements 
and as part of the U.S. early warning system. A State Department spokes- 
man denied that there had been any Soviet interference with U.S. recon- 
naissance satellites. ^ 

November 24 — The Washington Post reported that within the previous 2 j 
weeks the Soviet Union had conducted its first test of a submarine- : 
launched missile equipped with MIRV's. | 

November 29 — The New York Times reported that advisers to Jimmy i 
Carter were recommending a delay in the decision regarding produc- | 
tion of the B-1, a view shared by the Pentagon. U.S. SALT policy was i 
one consideration in the recommendation. On November 23 the Defense i 
Department had announced that a planned DSARC final review of the j 
plane had been postponed. i 

November 30 — In a speech in Moscow before a group of American busi- i 
nessmen, Soviet Party leader Brezhnev called on the incoming ad- j 
ministration to give high priority to pursuing a SALT agreement. ] 

December 2 — The New York Times reported that the Defense Systems \ 
Acquisition Review Committee would meet on January 6 to decide 1 

whether to consolidate the Air Force and Navy cruise missile programs. j 

j 

December 2 — In a press conference, Air Force Secretary Reed said that B-1 j 
bomber production had been ordered, under contracts limiting spending j 
to $87 million per month until June 1977. \ 

December 3 — Apparently in response to a public appeal by Soviet leader \ 
Brezhnev, President-elect Carter said he would move "aggressively" 1 
toward achieving a SALT agreement. ! 

December 4 — France conducted an underground nuclear test in the South 

Pacific. j 

December 5 — In an interview. Secretary of State-designate Cyrus Vance i 
said that the most important task facing him will be to end the deadlock j 
at SALT. i 

December 7 — The Soviet Union conducted an underground nuclear test. j 

December 8 — The United States conducted an underground nuclear test in : 
Nevada. ] 



17 



December 9 — The Boston Globe reported that, in his last budget request to 
Congress, the President would ask for $250 million to initiate full scale 
development of the M-X missile, an important step toward production, 
which is to replace the Minuteman III ICBM. This figure marks an in- 
crease from $70 million for fiscal year 1977 for basic research and 
development. 

December 9 — The New York Times reported that according to submissions 
to the IAEA, the Soviet Union would supply 200 tons of heavy water to 
India for its nuclear power program. 

December 11 — In a Pravda article, Soviet expert Georgi Arbatov said that 
movement in SALT should receive a high priority from the incoming 
Carter administration. 

December 14 — In a press conference. President-elect Carter said that if 
there were no progress at SALT, the United States would have to 
"escalate . . ." production of its weapons. 

December 15 — The New York Times reported that ACDA was in the proc- 
ess of accounting for nuclear weapons-grade material in about 20 
countries which have bought U.S. nuclear powerplants. Some of the 
material remains unaccounted for. 

December 16 — The French Government announced it would no longer ex- 
port nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. 

December 16 — The Washington Post reported that France was considering 
whether to cancel sales of nuclear facilities to Pakistan and Iraq. On the 
same day, it was reported that Libyan President Quaddafi had gained 
Soviet agreement to supply Libya with a nuclear powerplant and other 
technical cooperation. 

December 20 — West Germany announced it would not export nuclear tech- 
nology which could lead to the construction of new nuclear weapons. 

December 20 — General Electric announced it had been chosen to build a 
$200 million nuclear powerplant in Spain. 

December 22 — Pakistani Premier Bhutto said he would not let other coun- 
tries interfere with his country's purchase of a nuclear reprocessing 
plant from France. On the same day, Canada announced it would re- 
strict its nuclear exports to countries which are NPT parties. 

December 22 — The 31st session of the U.N. General Assembly ended, fol- 
lowing approval of a resolution to hold a special session on disarmament 
in 1978. (A preparatory committee will meet in March 1977.) Other 
resolutions passed during the session included one calling for an under- 
ground nuclear test ban, another for a treaty on chemical weapons pro- 
duction and stockpiling, and finally approval of a treaty banning hostile 
use of environmental modification techniques. 

December 23 — The Canadian Government announced its decision to end 
its nuclear cooperation program with Pakistan. 

December 26 — The New York Times reported that the CIA, in its most 
recent national intelligence estimate, had concluded that the Soviet 
Union seeks military superiority over the United States. 



18 



December 27 — President-elect Carter said he would probably meet with 
Soviet Party leader Brezhnev sometime before September 1977 to dis- 
cuss a SALT agreement. Commenting on press reports regarding in- 
telligence estimates of Soviet military capability, he said that the United 
States was still "by far stronger." 

December 28 — The Baltimore Sun rej>orted that the emerging SALT 
strategy of the Carter administration was to freeze levels of strategic 
forces first and then to begin talks immediately on reductions. This ap- 
proach appeared to leave the cruise missile/Backfire issue to the follow-on 
negotiations. 

December 28 — The Natural Resources Defense Council filed a petition 
with the NRC to block a proposed shipment of 9,000 pounds of highly 
enriched uranium to West Germany. 

December 29 — In an interview, Soviet Party leader Brezhnev said he 
would favor a summit meeting with the President-elect Carter if there 
were agreement at. SALT. 

December 30 — The 1977 edition of "Jane's Weapons Systems" was re- 
leased in London; it reported that the Soviet Union was developing 
three missiles (SS-NX-13, 17, and 18) which could match the U.S. 
Navy Tomahawk cruise missile. 

December 31 — The New York Times reported that the Soviet Union had 
conducted its fourth test of 1976 of a satellite interceptor. U.S. intelli- 
gence sources called the test a failure. 



ENERGY— INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS ' 



January 7 — ^The first tankers began loading at the port of al-Bakr, Iraq, 
the terminal of 810 kilometer north-south pipeline connecting the Kirkuk 
fields with the Rumayla fields. 

January 12 — Industrial, raw materials, and oil producing states began in- 
formal meetings to map their strategies prior to the four commission 
meetings of the Conference on International Economic Cooperation, due 
to begin in February. 

January 15 — The Government of South Korea would neither confirm nor 
deny the rumors that large quantities of oil had been found. 

January 18 — Rescuers found two survivors of the Norwegian oil and ore 
boat Berge Istra which exploded near Mindanao on December 29. The 
115,000-ton supertanker was carrying ore at the time. 

January 27 — Japan and the Soviet Union began discussions of a proposed 

sale of 10 Japanese nuclear powerplants to the Soviets. 

January 28 — The 13 members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting 
Countries (OPEC) agreed to establish a $800-million fund to assist 
poor nations. 

February 3 — Italian oil companies threatened to stop importing oil unless 
the Government allowed them to raise prices. 

February 5 — The American business community in Venezuela called for 
the repeal of the anti-OPEC amendment of the 1974 Trade Law. The 
only countries affected by the amendment were Venezuela and Ecuador 
neither of which took part in the 1973 oil embargo. 

February 17 — Britain's Secretary of State for Energy said that country 
would be self-suflBcient in oil within 4 years and would be the world's 
10th largest oil producer by 1980. 

February 17 — Iran lowered the selling price of its crude oil by 9.5 cents 
per barrel. 

February 19 — The Energy Research and Development Administration 
(ERDA) announced plans for underground storage of nuclear waste. 

February 19 — Three former General Electric Co. engineers said the U.S. 
nuclear power program was so dangerous it "threatens the very existence 
of life on this planet." 

February 23 — U.S. Treasury officials announced that OPEC investments 
in the United States dropped by 44 percent in 1975. 

February 23 — Kuwait announced new oil discoveries which could double 
or triple the country's current reserves. 

» Prepared by Clyde Mark, Analyst In Middle Eastern Affairs. 

(19) 



20 



February 24 — A Tokyo newspaper reported that the Soviet Union and 
Japan were considering an oil deal. The story appeared the same day 
that a Japanese team arrived in Peking to discuss a long-term oil 
purchase. 

February 26 — President Ford sent an energy proposal to the Congress. 

March 5 — It was reported that the oil well fire 30 miles offshore Dubai in 
the Persian Gulf had extinguished itself when the casing collapsed. The 
fire, which had burned since July 1975 despite efforts to quell the blaze, 
was estimated to cost about $100 million, the most expensive such fire 
in history. 

March 5 — The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 
(OECD ) reported that OPEC aid to developing countries totalled $5.6 
billion for 1975, compared to $4.6 billion for 1974. 

March 11 — The International Monetary Fund (IMF) oil facility announced 
that it had loaned or committed $8 billion to some 40 countries in the 
18 months of the Fund's existence. The largest beneficiaries were Italy 
and the United Kingdom. The largest contributor was Saudi Arabia. 

March 12 — The Arabian American Oil Co. (Aramco) and the Government 
of Saudi Arabia announced that they had reached a "general accord" 
on the sale of Aramco's remaining 40 percent of the company's opera- 
tions in Saudi Arabia. 

March 15 — Venezuelan Oil Minister Valentin Hernandez said that the 
U.S. Government had contacted his country concerning a direct sale of 
oil that would bypass the oil companies. 

March 16 — According to press reports, the talks between the United States 
and the Soviet Union for the purchase of Soviet oil broke down. 

March 18 — It was reported that the Popular Movement for the Liberation 
of Angola had nationalized the Cabinda Gulf Oil Co. Gulf Oil Co. officials 
denied the report. 

March 22 — The Taiwan News Agency reported that a series of explosions 
at the Taching oil fields in Manchuria had seriously curtailed oil produc- 
tion in the People's Republic of China. 

March 29— It was reported that France had agreed to furnish a 600-mega- 
watt nuclear powerplant to Libya. 

April 5 — During his visit to West Germany, Egyptian President Sadat dis- 
cussed the possibility of purchasing nuclear reactors. 

April 5 — One of the subjects discussed at a Swedish scientific conference 
was the growing debate over radioactivity, accidents, pollution, waste 
disposal, and costs of nuclear power generation. Sweden's 5 nuclear 
plants now generate between 15 and 20 percent of its power, and it is 
expected that by 1985, 13 nuclear plants will generate about 40 percent 
of its power. 

April 6 — Based on the first quarter reports, Venezuela's opposition party 
claimed the nationalized oil industry was losing money, but the govern- 
ment claimed it would clear about $600 million for the year. 

April 9— -The Venezuelan Government filed a tax deficiency claim against 
two Exxon affiliates for the year 1970. 



21 



April 9 — Federal Energy Administrator Zarb told a Washington meeting 
that there was a good chance of another oil embargo that would be much 
worse than the last one. He also said that OPEC was not going to be 
broken up, despite U.S. actions. 

April 15 — The second Arab petrochemical conference began in Abu Dhabi 
to discuss cooperation in developing local petrochemical industries. 

April 15 — It was reported that Japan would provide Iraq with $2 billion 
in aid for the construction of fertilizer, cement, aluminum, petrochemical, 
LPG, and refining plants in exchange for 90 million tons of crude oil 
over the next 7 years. 

April 21 — OPEC ministers met in Geneva to discuss the agenda for the 
May 27 OPEC meeting in Bali, Indonesia. 

April 21 — Iran and BP opened negotiations on a guaranteed minimum 
income clause. 

May 10 — It was reported that Iran was negotiating with three American 
companies to barter oil for weapons. 

May 10 — OPEC finance ministers, meeting in Paris, discussed establishing 
a long-term, no-interest loan fund for poor nations. The OPEC ministers 
also agreed to contribute $400 million to a $1 billion agricultural fund. 

May 13 — According to reports from Norway, production of the new 
"Statfiord A" field in the North Sea might be delayed for 1 year. 

May 19 — Canada announced that it would stop supplying nuclear equip- 
ment and technology to India because the two nations could not agree on 
safeguards. 

May 20 — ^The U.S. State Department approved a General Electric sale of 
two nuclear powerplants to South Africa, worth $2 billion. 

May 24 — Reports from Moscow stated that the Soviet Union was negotiating 
with American companies to purchase oil refining equipment and tech- 
nology worth about $2 billion. 

May 26 — The International Energy Agency reported from Paris that 
emergency sharing of oil supplies could be implemented within 2 weeks. 

May 28 — ^The United States and the Soviet Union signed a treaty limiting 
nonmilitary nuclear explosions. 

May 29 — At their meeting in Bali, Indonesia, the members of OPEC could 
not agree on the amount of a price increase and so decided to maintain 
the price freeze indefinitely. 

May 31 — It was reported that the British Government had decided to retain 
a 51 percent share in the offshore oil leases to be opened to bidding later 
in 1976. 

May 31 — France and Iran reportedly signed contracts for the construction 
of two nuclear powerplants worth about $1.2 billion in Iran. 

May 31 — According to press accounts. South Africa accepted a French bid 
for the construction of two nuclear powerplants of 1,000 MW each for 
the Cape Town area. 

June 4 — Egypt commissioned Westinghouse to construct a 600 MW nuclear 
reactor near Alexandria. 



22 



June 14 — Several members of OPEC reduced the price of their heavy crude 
oil by 5 to 10 cents per barrel following the decision reached at Bali in 
May to adjust the price differentials between heavy and Hght crudes. 
Libya and Algeria raised the price of their light crudes. Venezuela, act- 
ing contrary to the OPEC decision, raised the price of its heavy crude. 

June 18 — Japan agreed to construct a nuclear powerplant in Iran. Iran has 
two nuclear plants on order from West Germany and two from France 
for a total of 4,200 MW. Iran hopes to have 23,000 MW on line by 1994. 

June 20 — Occidental Petroleum Corp. and the Government of Iran signed 
a letter of intent for the Iranian purchase of 10 percent of Oxy's stock 
for $125 million, with a long-term option to purchase another 10 percent 
at a later date. 

July 5 — Exxon inaugurated an offshore drilling rig in the Santa Barbara 
Channel in water 850 feet deep, almost 400 feet deeper than the previous 
deep water recordholder in the North Sea. 

July 10 — The energy commission of the Conference on International Eco- 
nomic Cooperation (CIEC) ended the first phase of its meetings to 
analyze international energy problems. The second phase, recommend- 
ing solutions to the problems, should be completed before the CIEC 
Ministerial Conference scheduled for December 1976. 

July 19 — Western European imports of crude oil for 1975 were lowest since 
1970, according to reports released during the week. 

July 19 — It was reported that the European Economic Community and the 
United States had agreed to cooperate in nuclear fusion research. 

July 21 — U.S. State Department officials testified at a Nuclear Regulatory 
Commission hearing that the United States should sell 13.5 tons of 
enriched uranium to India in order to maintain a restraining influence 
over India. Critics of the sale maintained that India might use the fuel to 
produce more nuclear weapons. 

July 28 — U.S. Commerce Secretary Elliot Richardson said another Arab oil 
embargo against the United States could lead to a "major military 
struggle." 

August 10 — It was reported that Iran and Britain were negotiating an arms- 
for-oil agreement worth about $500 million. 

August 10 — Indonesia and Campagnie Francaise des Petroles (CP) signed 
a revised service contract, bringing to five the number of companies 
that have accepted the new Indonesian tax split of 85-15. 

August 18 — ^MTA Sismik I, the Turkish scientific ship, began its third 
exploration voyage through the Aegean Sea in search of oil. Sismik's 
explorations have touched off a Greek-Turkish controversy over offshore 
rights and territorial sea boundaries. 

August 20 — It was reported that Australia and Iran had signed an agree- 
ment for the supply of Australian uranium for the proposed 23 nuclear 
powerplants to be built in Iran in the next 15 years. 

August 27 — Occidental Petroleum and the Government of Iran announced 
that the proposed sale of Oxy stock had been canceled. (See June 20, 
above. ) 



23 



August 28 — Reports from Vienna indicated that OPEC economic ministers 
could not agree on a common formula for price differentials, due to be 
considered at the next scheduled OPEC meeting in December. 

September 4 — Israeli gunboats expelled an Amoco drill ship from eastern 
Gulf of Suez waters because Israel claims sovereignty over the sea since 
its occupation of the Sinai in 1967. Amoco and its partner, the Egyptian 
Government, signed a 1964 contract to explore for oil in the area. 

September 9 — The FEA announced in Washington that it had chosen 8 
underground sites for storage of a 150 million barrel strategic oil reserve 
intended to conteract the effects of future oil embargoes. The reserve is 
supposed to be in place by 1978. 

September 16 — ^The Government of Qatar agreed to pay $41 million to the 
Qatar Petroleum Company as compensation for the remaining 40 per- 
cent of QPC's assets. QPC will receive an operators fee of 15 cents per 
barrel of production from the Dukhan field. 

September 17 — The Trilateral Commission, composed of foreign policy 
experts from Japan, Europe and North America, recommended that Iran, 
Brazil, and Mexico be invited to join the Organization for Economic 
Cooperation and Development (OECD) and that Saudi Arabia be in- 
vited to join the International Monetary Fund's Group of Ten. 

September 17 — Egypt reported that several new oil fields had been dis- 
covered in the western Sahara and in the Gulf of Suez. 

September 17 — It was reported that Kuwait had contracted with an 
American drilling company to drill a 20,000 foot well in the Burgan 
dome, one of the world's most prolific oil fields. The Kuwaits believe there 
is a massive sweet gas reserve below Burgan. 

September 20 — At the CIEC Energy Commission meeting, the United States 
repeated its proposal to establish an International Energy Institute to 
assist developing nations in energy matters. 

September 24 — According to reports from the Persian Gulf, spot prices for 
crude oil were running about 20 cents per barrel above long-term con- 
tract prices, a factor which reinfoced oil producers' claims that prices 
would be raised in December. 

September 27 — Venezuela raised the prices of its crude oil by 20 to 70 
cents per barrel, effective October 1. 

October 1 — At the end of the CIEC Energy Commission meeting, the EEC 
profK>sed that a permanent energy consultative forum be created to 
continue the discussions of energy matters after the CIEC completes 
its work in December. 

October 1 — ^The lEA report on energy conservation stated that the 19 
member-states had reduced 1975 energy consumption 4.8 percent below 
the 1973 rate. The report chastised the United States for wasting energy. 

October 8 — During the visit of French President Giscard d'Estaing to Iran, 
the President and the Shah signed the final contracts for construction 
of two nuclear powerplants (900 MW each) valued at $1,420 million. 
Iran and France also agreed in principle to build six more nuclear power 



24 



plants over the next 20 years. A West German group currently is con- 
structing two nuclear plants in Iran (1,200 MW each). 

October 15 — Reports from the Persian Gulf and the Caribbean indicated 
that spot market prices for crude oil continued to creep upward in antic- 
ipation of an OPEC price rise in December. 

October 22 — It was announced that Iran will purchase a 25 percent interest 
in Krupp, the West German conglomerate. In 1974, Iran purchased 25 
percent of a Krupp subsidiary. 

November 11 — Representatives from 15 nations met in London to discuss 
limiting nuclear exports to insure that the technology could not be used 
to develop nuclear weapons. Officials from Belgium, Canada, Czecho- 
slovakia, France, East Germany, West Germany, Italy, Japan, Nether- 
lands, Poland, Sweden, U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, United States and one 
unnamed country (reportedly Switzerland) attended. 

November 15 — Five explosions crippled France's largest uranium mine. 
A group calling itself the "Opposition Commando Using Explosives 
Against the Destruction of the Universe" (COPO) claimed credit for 
the act. The same day. West German police used tear gas and water 
cannon to break up anti-nuclear demonstrations near Brokdorf, West 
Germany. 

November 15 — Prime Minister Hussein Onn reported to the Malaysian 
Parliament that the revised production sharing agreements with com- 
pany operators were nearing completion. According to the Petroleum 
Eonomist, Malaysia was seeking a 92.5/7.5 split to replace the prevail- 
ing 85/15 split. It was reported earlier that the Government had agreed 
to purchase 51 percent of one of the country's three refineries. 

November 18 — Iran and British Aircraft Corp. signed a $640 million bar- 
ter deal to exchange oil for a surface-to-air missile system. BAG will sell 
the oil to Shell. 

November 22 — In an interview with Der Spiegel, the Shah of Iran stated 
that his country would be willing to arrange a bilateral indexing system 
to peg the price of oil to other trade commodities. In the past, the Shah 
has advocated a worldwide indexing system, but under the new pro- 
posal, each of Iran's trading partners would be able to index just those 
commodities traded with Iran and thereby protect themselves from the 
higher inflation rates of other countries. 

November 24 — Canada announced that it would cut its oil exports to the 
United States by 21 percent, from 385 Mb/d down to 305 Mb/d, begin- 
ning January 1, 1977. 

November 26 — Pakistan and the Soviet Union announced that a team of 
Soviet geologists would begin new oil and gas explorations in Pakistan. 

December 8 — The Conference on International Economic Cooperation 
meeting scheduled for December 15 was postponed until March 1977. 

December 9 — France and the United States each set off underground nu- 
clear explosions. 

December 9 — It was reported that the Soviet Union had agreed to sell 200 
tons of heavy water to India to replace the Canadian supplies cancelled 
after India exploded its nuclear device. 



25 



December 13 — Exxon and Shell announced that it would cost $3.84 billion 
to develop the Brent oil field in the North Sea. 

December 16 — France announced that it would stop bilateral sales of nu- 
clear fuel reprocessing plants to foreign countries. Apparently, the 
announcement would not effect the sale to Pakistan. 

December 17 — At the end of their 3-day meeting in Qatar, 11 members of 
OPEC announced a price increases of 10 percent to take effect January 1 
and a 5 percent to take effect July 1, 1977, while Saudi Arabia and the 
United Arab Amirates announced an increase of 5 percent effective 
January 1. Later, Indonesia dropped its announced increase from 10 to 
6 percent. 

December 20 — Members of the lEA signed an accord to coordinate re- 
search in solar energy. 

December 21 — West Germany announced an end to bilateral sales of nu- 
clear reprocessing plants, although the proposed sale to Brazil would 
be completed. 

December 21 — A Japanese newspaper reported that China was developing 
the recently discovered Liaoning oil field for export. 

December 21 — Saudi Arabian Oil Minister Yamani was quoted as saying 
that his country would not increase production past the 8.5 MMb/d 
ceiling already established. It had been reported at the end of the OPEC 
meeting that the Saudis would flood the market in an attempt to drive 
world oil prices down. 

December 31 — In December, there were five separate oil spills in U.S. 
waters, each involving tankers registered in Liberia. 



INDOCHINA ' 



January 19 — Radio Saigon announced that North Vietnam and South 
Vietnam will elect a joint national assembly on April 25, 1976, which 
will be the legislative body for a reunified Vietnam. 

January 21— The New York Times reported that the communist govern- 
ment in Cambodia was conducting a second mass migration, involving 
hundreds of thousands of people and causing considerable hardship and 
many deaths. 

February 2 — The New York Times reported that, according to congres- 
sional sources, North Vietnamese leaders told several visiting Members 
of Congress that former President Nixon sent them a memorandum early 
in January 1973 that promised $3.25 billion in American reconstruction 
aid after the signing of the Vietnam cease-fire agreement. According to 
the Times, Representative Paul McCloskey, one of the Congressmen who 
visited Hanoi, confirmed the account. 

February 4 — ^The Cambodian Government announced that elections would 
be held on March 20, 1976, for a Cambodian Peoples Representative 
Assembly of 250 members. 

February 8 — Le Duan, First Secretary of the Vietnamese Communist Party, 
and Kaysone Plomvihan, General Secretary of the Laos Communist 
Party and Prime Minister of Laos, gave speeches in Hanoi pledging 
support by Vietnam and Laos for the communist-led insurgency in Thai- 
land and for other communist insurgencies in Southeast Asia. Le Duan 
said that Vietnam would "fully support" and "contribute actively" to 
the communist revolutionary movements in Southeast Asia. 

February 14 — ^The North Vietnam News Agency reported that communist 
forces in South Vietnam had put down an "armed rebellion" after a 
13-hour siege of a Catholic church in Saigon. 

February 16 — The North Vietnamese Communist Party journal Hoc Tap 
stated in an article that Vietnam, in its foreign policy toward the re- 
mainder of Southeast Asia, would "resolutely support" communist revo- 
lutionary movements in the region but would also seek friendly relations 
and cooperation with the other countries in Southeast Asia. 

February 18 — Representative Jonathan Bingham stated that, on the basis 
of talks he held with Vietnamese ofl&cials in Paris, the Vietnamese were 
"anxious" to resume exploration for offshore oil with the aid of foreign 
oil companies. 

F ebruary 22 — Vietnamese authorities in Saigon released to aides of Sena- 
tor Edward Kennedy the remains of the last two American servicemen 
known to have been killed in the Vietnam war, 

^ Prepared by Marjorie Niehaus, Analyst in International Relations. 



(27) 



28 



February 27— Cambodia charged that three U.S. F-lll's bombed Siem 
Reap on February 25, killing 15 persons and wounding over 30. The 
United States and Thai Governments denied the charge. 

February 28— A lead article in the Official North Vietnamese newspaper 
Nhan Dan called on communist movements throughout Southeast Asia 
to intensify their efforts to overthrow existing governments, and the 
article stated that North Vietnam would "fully support" them. 

March 12 — Secretary Kissinger reportedly told the House Select Committee 
on Missing Persons (according to a United Press International report) 
that the United States soon would take steps to establish diplomatic rela- 
tions with North Vietnam. 

March 17— The Deputy Director of the CIA, Lt. Gen. Vernon Walters, 
told the House Select Committee on Missing Persons that the CIA had 
no evidence that any American MIA's were still alive in Southeast Asia, 
but he said that North Vietnam undoubtedly had information on some 
of the more than 800 unresolved MIA cases. 

March 17 — The Foreign Report of the Economist (London) reported that 
the Soviet Union had begun to construct repair and refuelling facilities 
for Soviet submarines in North Vietnam near Haiphong and that the 
Soviet Union had agreed to supply the Vietnamese navy with Whiskey 
class Soviet-built submarines and train Vietnamese seamen for sub- 
marine duty. 

March 20 — ^The new regime in Cambodia held elections for a national 
assembly; top communist officials of the government won seals with 
100 percent of the vote as did nominal chief of state Prince Sihanouk. 

March 26 — The Washington Post reported that the Ford administration had 
authorized exploratory talks with communist Vietnam on possible 
normalization of relations. 

March 27 — Secretary Kissinger stated that the United States had sent a 
message to North Vietnam on March 26 that the Ford administration 
was prepared in principle "to normalize relations with Hanoi." Kissinger 
said that the message listed the MIA question as the principal concern 
of the United States. 

March 29 — A spokesman for the North Vietnamese Embassy in Paris re- 
iterated North Vietnam's position that the United States must provide 
reconstruction aid to Vietnam before Hanoi would provide information 
on U.S. MIA's. 

April 6 — In the second part of a series dealing with the planning and im- 
plementation of the North Vietnamese 1975 offensive against South 
Vietnam, North Vietnamese Chief of Staff General Van Tien Dung 
disclosed that the military and psychological effects of congressional 
cuts in military aid on South Vietnamese forces and the post- Watergate 
political climate in the United States were major factors in the North 
Vietnamese Politburo's decision to launch the offensive. General Dung's 
series appeared in the official Hanoi newspaper, Nhan Dan. 

April 9-13 — The Laotian Government arrested approximately 1,200 people 
in what it described as a "cultural revolution" intended to eliminate 
"reactionaries" and the "depraved" Western way of life. 



29 



April 14 — Radio Phnom Penh announced a new Cambodian Government 
headed by Tol Sat, a former rubber plantation workers' representative, 
and including the Khmer Rouge leadership (Khieu Samphan, leng Sary, 
and Son Sen) in top cabinet posts. 

April 14 — The Washington Post reported that the United States had re- 
ceived from North Vietnam a sternly worded reply to the Ford admin- 
istration's overture for explanatory talks on normalization of relations. 

April J9— Time Magazine reported that 500,000 to 600,000 people had died 
from political reprisals, disease, or starvation since the Communists 
took over Cambodia in April 1975 and that the regime was liquidating 
"anyone with an education." 

April 25 — Elections for a unified national assembly were held in North and 
South Vietnam. All candidates were selected by the Lao Dong (Com- 
munist) Party, and most seats not contested. 

May 3 — Lt. Pech Lim Kuon, a pilot for the Communist Government of 
Cambodia, was interviewed following his defection to Thailand on 
May 2. He confirmed widespread executions of Cambodians identified 
with the Lon Nol government and said that Saloth Sar, Secretary General 
of the Communist Party, was No. 1 in a ruling group of five individuals. 

June 1 — French journalist Yves-Guy Berges, reporting in the daily Paris 
newspaper France-Soir, stated that he personally had been with anti- 
Communist guerrillas in Cambodia who occupied large jungle areas of 
the country. 

June 2 — The Washington Post and New York Times reported that a team 
of United Nations officials had submitted a report to Secretary Wald- 
heim recommending that the U.N. undertake a campaign to generate 
$432 million in international aid for Vietnam. 

June 4 — A Veterans of Foreign War delegation stated in Paris that North 
Vietnamese officials whom they had met had given them the impression 
that North Vietnam still held some American prisoners of war. 

June 5 — South Vietnam's Provisional Revolutionary Government issued a 
statement reaffirming Vietnam's sovereignty over the Spratley Islands. 
The Spratley's, lying southeast of Vietnam and southwest of the Philip- 
pine's island of Palawan, are also claimed by China, Taiwan, and the 
Philippines. 

June 7 — The North Vietnamese Embassy in Paris issued a statement in 
response to the June 4 comments of a Veterans of Foreign Wars delega- 
tion. In the statement, the Embassy denied that Hanoi still held Ameri- 
can prisoners of war. 

June 10 — Official Vietnam Government statements said that Vietnamese 
associated with the United States and other opponents of the Conomu- 
nist government would be brought to trial and "severely punished" and 
that 40,000 former soldiers and civil servants of the Thieu government 
would have to remain in "re-education" camps for at least 3 years. 

June 14 — China claimed "indisputable sovereignty" over the Spratley Islands 
and warned other nations not to encroach on the islands. 



81-813 - 77 -3 



30 



June 18 — The Government of Thailand disclosed that its Foreign Minister 
had just returned from Cambodia where agreement was reached on 
border demarcation and the establishment of embassies. 

June 24 — Vietnam's national assembly convened in Hanoi, and Vietnam 
was declared a united country in the opening ceremony. 

June 25 — In a major policy speech before the Vietnam National Assembly, 
Le Duan, first secretary of the Vietnamese Communist Party, stated that 
the Government's policy would be a rapid transformation of the south- 
ern half of the country to "socialism"; that this would include the 
elimination of most forms of private enterprise and the collectivization of 
agriculture; and that the Government would "rapidly do away with the 
bureaucratic and militarist comprador bourgeoiseie as well as all 
vestings of the feudal landlord class." 

July 2 — Vietnam formally proclaimed its unification as the Socialist Repub- 
lic of Vietnam. 

July 12 — The Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the Republic of the 
Philippines established formal diplomatic relations. In a joint com- 
munique the two countries agreed "not to allow any foreign country 
to use one's country as a base for direct or indirect aggression and 
intervention against the other country or other countries in the region." 

July 12 — Radio Hanoi said that Vietnam will welcome an official delegation 
from Thailand next month, and indicated Vietnam is ready to establish 
friendlier relations with Thailand now that all American troops, except 
for a 270-man adviser group, are scheduled to leave the country. 

July 13 — The New York Times reported that a government official in Saigon 
indicated to a correspondent in the spring of 1976 that there were 
200,000 prisoners in the so-called "reeducation camps" in South Viet- 
nam. (The Hanoi government indicated in June that 40,000 prisoners 
would have to remain in the camps for 3 years and that most of the 
remainder had been released. 

July 14 — Vice Foreign Minister Phan Hein of Vietnam said the United 
States had proposed new talks with Hanoi over the question of American 
servicemen still listed as missing in Vietnam. Hein emphasized that 
American postwar reconstruction aid was a precondition for progress 
in relations between the two countries. 

July 20 — The extensive 11-year old U.S. military presence in Thailand 
ended with the departure of the last American serviceman. A group of 
270 military advisers are to remain in Thailand. 

July 21 — Vietnam notified Senators Kennedy, McGovern, and Representa- 
tive Montgomery that Americans who had been stranded in South Viet- 
nam since April 1975, would be able to depart in August with their 
wives and children. 

July 22 — The Washington Star reported that although the new policy had 
not been publicly announced, the administration had modified its at- 
titude on possible sales by Vietnam of captured U.S. weapons and was 
willing to help "friendly countries" that might buy them. 



31 



July 22 — In a speech given in Seattle, Wash., Secretary Kissinger said that 
there can be no progress toward improved relations with Hanoi without 
a wholly satisfactory accounting for all missing Americans. 

July 23 — At the seventh annual meeting of the National League of Families 
of MIA's, Representative Montgomery, the chairman of the House 
Select Committee on Missing Persons in Southeast Asia, told the group 
that based on his committee's investigation, he has abandoned his hope 
that the men are alive. 

July 30 — Cambodian Premier Pol Pat, in an interview given to the Viet- 
nam News Agency, said that Cambodia had serious medical problems, 
food shortages, and no means to build new factories to spur the 
economy. 

August 1 — Radio Phnom Penh announced the establishment of diplomatic 
relations between Cambodia and Japan. 

August 2 — Malaysian Foreign Affairs Minister Tengku Ahman Rithauddeen 
stated that Vietnam had assured Malaysia that all weapons left behind 
by the United States in Vietnam would not be provided to Communist 
insurgents in neighboring countries. 

August 6 — Vietnam and Thailand agreed to set up diplomatic relations. 
With this agreement, Vietnam had established diplomatic relations with 
every non-Communist country in Southeast Asia. 

August 17 — At the conference of "non-alined" nations at Colombo Sri 
Lanka, Prime Minister Pham Van Dong said that Vietnam wanted to 
develop economic ties with capitalist countries and normal diplomatic 
relations with the United States. 

September 1 — Vietnam's permanent observer to the United States called 
on the United States not to veto Vietnam's request for admission to the 
United Nations; he said that increased contacts between Vietnam and 
the United States would help facilitate a solution to the issues of MIA's 
and reconstruction aid. 

September & — The Vietnamese Embassy released the names of 12 missing 
American pilots and said that they had been killed in action during the 
Vietnam War. 

September 13 — U.N. Ambassador William Scranton announced that the 
United States would veto Vietnam's application for admission to the 
United Nations because of failure to account for American MIA's. 
Vietnam responded by accusing President Ford of using the veto for 
domestic political purposes, and Hanoi made public several notes ex- 
changed between Washington and Hanoi on the MIA issue. 

September 14 — The United Nations Security Council decided to put oflF 
consideration of Vietnam's membership in the world organization until 
November, after the U.S. presidential election. 

October 5 — In speeches before the U.N. General Assembly, the foreign min- 
isters of Laos and Cambodia indicated that anti-Communist forces are 
active in their countries. 

October 16 — Jack Anderson reported in the Washington Post that the Com- 
munists who have taken over Vietnam are holding between 200,000 and 



32 



300,000 political prisoners in "re-education camps" according to the 
organization SANE. 

October 24 — A statement by the Vietnamese Embassy in Paris said Viet- 
nam has agreed to a U.S. proposal for an exchange of views on prob- 
lems of interest to each side. Secretary Kissinger confirmed that Viet- 
nam has agreed to the talks. 

October 29 — The U.S. Government approved the first U.S. commercial ex- 
port to the Communist government of Cambodia — a $450,000 sale of 
insecticide. U.S. officials said the action was taken in response to a 
humanitarian need, and does not indicate a change in the overall export 
control policy which forbids commercial transactions with Vietnam and 
Cambodia. 

November 6 — Vietnam announced that it faced food and raw material short- 
ages as well as a trade deficit. 

November 9 — The Pentagon released an inventory of an estimated $2 bil- 
lion worth of U.S. equipment which was taken over by the North Viet- 
namese from the South Vietnamese in April 1975. 

November il— The New York Times reported that 40,000-50,000 Lao- 
tiems are confined in harsh and repressive internment camps throughout 
Laos. 

November 12 — The United States and Vietnam opened talks in Paris on 
the possibility of normalizing diplomatic relations. 

November 15 — The United States vetoed the U.N. membership applica- 
tion of Vietnam for the third time because the Vietnamese, according 
to the administration, had not demonstrated their willingness to abide by 
the human rights criteria- of the U.N. Charter, by withholding data on 
American MIA's. 

November 29 — As reported in the Wall Street Journal, Cambodia appears 
to be preparing for trade with non-Communist nations. 

December 15 — The House Select Committee on Missing Persons issued a 
report stating that no Americans were still being held prisoner as a 
result of the Indochina war but that the Indochina states could account 
for many of the MIA's. 

December 15 — The Vietnam Worker's Party (Communist) opened its 
first party congress since 1960. 

December 17 — Vietnamese Communist leaders at the party congress de- 
scribed Vietnam's future economic development as emphasizing indus- 
trial development in the north with the south serving to provide food for 
the country and workers to supplement the northern labor force in 
industry. 

December 20 — At its first party congress, the Vietnam Workers Party 
officially renamed itself the Communist Party and renamed Le Duan to 
the position of secretary general of the party. (The party chairmanship 
has been vacant since the death of Ho Chi Minh.) Other top party posi- 
tions remained in the hands of northern leaders. 



33 



December 28 — Thanat Khoman, former Thai foreign minister and cur- 
rently head of the Thai National Assembly's foreign relations committee, 
stated that intelligence reports showed that the Soviet Union had built 
missile silos in the mountains of Laos that could be used to direct mis- 
siles against either China or Thailand. 

December 29 — A group of individuals, formerly prominent in the Vietnam 
antiwar movement in the United States, stated that Vietnamese ofl&cials 
had rebuffed their efforts to inquire into reports of widespread abuses 
of political and civil liberties in Vietnam by the Hanoi government. 

December 30 — Vietnam's chief spokesman at the United Nations denied 
that his government was infringing on human rights or imprisoning 
thousands of people for their political beliefs. 



I 



I 



i 



i 



i 



\ 

I 

! 
j 



I 



MIDDLE EAST^ 



January 2— The Israeli newspaper Maariv reported that Foreign Minister 
Allon was calling for informal talks with Jordanian and West Bank Arab 
leaders in an effort toward negotiating an interim peace agreement. 

January 4 — ^The Israeli Government devalued the nation's currency 1.9 
percent — the sixth devaluation in 14 months. 

January 6 — Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi declared his country's op- 
position to any Arab attempts to alter Security Council Resolutions 242 
and 338 during the forthcoming debate on the Middle East scheduled 
to open on January 12. 

January 7 — Secretary of State Kissinger and Israeli Foreign Minister Allon 
began a series of strategy discussions in Washington relating to the 
Security Council Middle East debate. (Israel maintained its position of 
boycotting the debate and called for a U.S. stand to oppose amendment 
of Resolutions 242 and 338.) 

January 8 — Israeli Defense Minister Peres said that Israel would consider 
Syrian intervention in Lebanon as an invasion and would respond ac- 
cordingly. (Peres' declaration followed a statement by Syrian Foreign 
Minister Khaddam saying that Syria would immediately intervene to 
prevent the partition of Lebanon into Christian and Muslim states. State 
Department spokesman Robert Funseth reported U.S. opposition to any 
external intervention by either Israel or Syria.) 

January 9 — Israeli Foreign Minister Allon said that Israel would reject 
any attempt to shift Middle East peace diplomacy from the Geneva Con- 
ference to the U.N. Security Council. 

January 9 — ^The Washington Post reported that the U.S. Embassy in Saudi 
Arabia had warned Washington that U.S. Federal and State moves 
against American firms complying with the Arab boycott against Israel 
may damage the entire United States-Saudi relationship. 

January 10 — Omani Foreign Affairs Under Secretary Yusuf al-Alawi said 
that Iranian forces would remain in Oman to assure support against 
incursions from the People's Democratic Republic of the Yemen. 

January 11 — Kuwait Finance Minister Abd al-Rahman Attiqui stated in an 
interview that his country had decided to purchase Soviet arms for the 
first time and that Kuwait's rulers were apprehensive over future po- 
litical and economic relations with the United States. 

^Prepared by Clyde Mark, Analyst in Middle East AflFairs. 

(35) 



1 



36 I 

January J 2— Speaking in New York as the U.N. Security Council opened ■ 
its debate on the Middle East, Israeli Ambassador Chaim Herzog said 
his government was prepared to negotiate with its Arab neighbors but 
not with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). (By an 11-1 
vote, with the United States in opposition and France, the United King- 
dom and Italy abstaining, the Security Council approved the seating of 
the PLO.) I 

January 13 — Egyptian President al-Sadat stated that Egypt would be will- I 
ing to join a reconvened Geneva Conference without initial attendance ! 
by the Palestinians, but it would press for their eventual participation. ^ 
(At the Security Council, however, Egyptian Ambassador Ismet Abel 
Meguid requested that the Council call for resumption of the Geneva 
Conference with full participation by the PLO.) 

January 13 — President Ford signed an order committing up to 200 U.S. 
civilian technicians and $20 million to early warning stations in the 
Sinai buffer zone. 

January 15 — Diplomatic sources disclosed that Israeli Prime Minister Rabin 
and Jordanian King Hussein had held at least one secret meeting in 
recent months to discuss peace proposals. 

January 15 — Israel supported Egyptian President al-Sadat's proposal to 

reconvene the Geneva Conference without initial Palestinian participa- J 
tion and indicated its readiness to discuss eventual Palestinian rep- \ 
resentation. (At the Security Council, Soviet Ambassador Malik called 
for the speedy resumption of the Geneva Conference. ) 

January 19 — U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Moynihan informed 
the Security Council that the United States opposed changes in the al- 
ready agreed upon guidelines for a Middle East peace settlement (Res- 
olutions 242 and 338) that all substantial negotiations would have to 
take place at the Geneva Conference table; any changes would have " 
to be accepted by all the parties concerned. 

January 20 — Palestinian Liberation Army (PL A) units, based in Syria j 
and equipped with armor and artillery, joined Muslim groups in seizing \ 
large parts of Lebanon. (Lebanese Interior Minister Camille Chamoun 
appealed for immediate intervention by the U.N. Security Council to 
avert the danger of a new Middle East war. Secretary of State Kissinger ; 
said in Copenhagen, en route to Moscow, that "the United States has ] 
warned all outside parties, and I want to repeat it here, against unilateral ■ 
acts which could expand the conflict.") 

January 20 — Arab delegates at the Security Council debate on the Middle 

East branded current guidelines to a peace settlement as inadequate ; 
because they ignored Palestinian political aspirations. . j 

January 21 — An advance party of U.S. technicians arrived in the Sinai to \ 
begin construction of the early warning system in the buffer zone. •] 

January 22 — A joint Lebanese-Syrian-Palestinian supervisory committee j 

announced a cease-fire throughout Lebanon for 8 p.m. local time. ! 

January 25— Both the United States and the PLO rejected a draft resolu- . 

tion on Palestinian rights. (The measure would have the Security ; 

Council recognize Palestinian rights to a separate state while guarantee- • 



37 



ing Israel's security within its own borders, demand Israel's withdrawal 
from all occupied territories, and reaffirm the rights of Palestinian ref- 
ugees to choose between returning to their former property in Israel or 
receiving compensation.) 

January 26— The United States vetoed a Security Council resolution calling 
for the establishment of an independent Palestinian state and Israeli 
withdrawal from aU occupied territories. 

January 26— It was reported that the Ford administration would submit 
to Congress a request for $1.8 billion in economic and military aid to 
Israel for fiscal 1977— ahnost $500 million less than Israel will receive 
in the current fiscal year. 

January 26— The UNEF transferred part of the northern sector of its Sinai 
buffer zone to Egyptian forces in implementation of the September 1975 
Egyptian-Israeli interim agreement. 

January 27 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin arrived in Washington for a 
3-day visit with U.S. Government and private officials. 

January 28 — In an address to a joint session of Congress, Prime Minister 
Rabin called for the reconvening of the Geneva Conference, and he said 
he was ready to meet with any Arab Government leader "at any time 
and at any place," pledging undefined Israeli concessions in return for 
serious negotiations. (He reiterated the need for a military strong 
Israel in face-to-face negotiations with Arab leaders.) 

January 29 — A third meeting between President Ford and Israeli Prime 
Minister Rabin was scheduled reportedly because of differences over 
(1) a formula for new Arab-Israeli negotiations; (2) Israeli flexibility 
in future negotiations; and (3) the amount of U.S. economic and mili- 
tary aid to Israel. 

January 29 — State Department spokesman John Trattner said the United 
States was encouraged by the progress being made in Lebanon and 
recognized "the constructive role the Government of Syria is now play- 
ing, now that the cease-fire appears to be taking hold." 

January 30 — ^The Washington Post reported that estimates of foreign ad- 
visers and technicians serving with the Syrian armed forces, in addition 
to the 3,000 Soviet military advisers, indicate a figure of between 1,000 
and 1,500 Cubans, North Koreans and North Vietnamese. 

January 30 — Algeria reported that Polisario guerrillas had launched new 
waves of attacks on Moroccan and Mauritanean positions in former 
Spanish Sahara. (Morocco had claimed a victory over Algerian troops 
on January 29 after a 3-day battle at the oasis of Amghala.) 

February 2 — It was reported that President Ford had agreed to a sugges- 
tion by Israeli Prime Minister Rabin to explore the possibilities of 
arranging negotiations between Israel and Jordan on the future of the 
West Bank. 

February 2 — State Department spokesman John Trottner confirmed that 
Egypt had expressed an interest in purchasing a number of C-130 trans- 
port aircraft, and he stated that no U.S. Government decision on "a mili- 
tary supply relationship" with Egypt would be taken without "thorough 
consultation with Congress." 



38 



February 3— Israeli Prime Minister Rabin said he doubted that the United 
States and Egypt had made a secret deal concerning the Middle East. 
(Egyptian President al-Sadat previously had asserted that he and Secre- 
tary Kissinger had reached an agreement, although he did not 
elaborate.) 

February 4 — The Israeli Government announced that the first shipment 
of 100 U.S.-supplied Lance ground-to-ground missiles had arrived and 
were in place at an Israeli artillery base. 

February 5 — In Amman, a reconvened Jordanian Parliament, which had 
been dissolved in 1974 following the Rabat summit conference, ap- 
proved an amendment to the constitution allowing King Hussein to post- 
pone indefinitely elections scheduled for March 23, thus clearing the 
way for representation of the West Bank. 

February 7 — Lebanese President Franjieh met in Damascus with Syrian 
President al-Assad to discuss peace arrangements ending Lebanon's 10- 
month old civil war. (Syria assumed responsibility for the strict observ- 
ance by Palestinian guerrillas of the 1969 and 1973 agreements to 
respect Lebanon's sovereignty; the peace arrangements also provided 
for a more equitable sharing of power between the Christians and 
Muslims.) 

February 9 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin defended his government's 
revised request for U.S. military equipment, and Rabin overcame a veto 
of no-confidence in the Knesset. 

February 10 — A newly published American Enterprise Institute study of 
the Arab-Israeli balance in the Middle East warned that "any new con- 
flict threatens to escalate from a conventional to a nuclear war," and con- 
cluded that Israel possessed a clearcut advantage in the air and a superi- 
ority in missiles, electronic countermeasures, and naval capabilities. 

February 10 — Jordanian Prime Minister Rifai strongly denied reports 
from Israeli sources that Jordan was considering negotiations or a 
joint arrangement with Israel over the West Bank. 

February 11 — Israel devalued the pound by another 2 percent. 

February 12 — Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi reaffirmed his govern- 
ment's support for the PLO as a sole representative of the Palestinian 
people. (It had been reported that several members of the Egyptian 
parliament had questioned the continuation of that policy.) 

February 13 — By a 23-1 vote, with 8 abstentions, the U.N. Commission 
on Human Rights adopted a resolution accusing Israel of having com- 
mitted "war crimes" in the occupied Arab territories. (The United 
States cast the only opposing vote.) 

February 13 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin declared in an interview that 
his government's position was "not to negotiate with the terrorist orga- 
nizations or to agree to negotiate for another limited agreement with 
one of the Arab countries." 

February 16 — In a speech published in Beirut, Saleh Khalaf, second-in- 
command of Al Fatah, declared that under no circumstances would the 
PLO recognize the State of Israel, and that the guerrilla umbrella orga- 



39 



nization was planning to close its ranks and establish closer cooperation 
with "progressive forces" in the Arab world "for a decisive battle with 
Israel." 

February 17 — Syrian Prime Minister Ayoubi said that his country would 
not participate in a reconvened session of the Geneva Conference on 
the Middle East because his government is convinced that "this route 
. will not lead to peace." (Jordan had rejected participation in the Geneva 
Conference on February 16.) 

February 18 — The Department of Defense announced contracts with Saudi 
Arabia and Iran for military equipment, construction, and aircraft parts 
totaling more than $1.2 billion. 

February 18 — Syria and Jordan announced that, starting in June, their 
countries' diplomatic representation abroad would be unified. 

February 20 — ^The Washington Post reported that Algeria was seeking 
an estimated $500 million in new loans to bolster its economy, which 
had been strained by the continuing slump in oil revenues, and by mil- 
itary confrontation on its western borders with Morocco. (The loans 
would help finance Algeria's drive to lessen its dependence on dwindling 
oil reserves and to become one of the world's largest suppliers of natural 
gas.) 

February 20 — Israeli Foreign Minister Allon said that "constructive" Pal- 
estinian elements should be included in negotiations with Jordan over 
the occupied West Bank. 

February 21 — Egyptian President al-Sadat flew to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 
on the first leg of a week-long tour of oil producing Arab countries. 
(Al-Sadat stated in an interview before his departure that he expected 
his tour to result "in a financial blood transfusion into Egypt's arteries.") 

February 22 — Egyptian troops in the Sinai took over from UNEF the last 
area due them in the final step to implement the second Egyptian-Israeli 
disengagement agreement of September 1975. 

February 22 — Israel announced that it would direct its Middle E)astern 
peacemaking efforts seeking a formal end to the state of war with the 
Arab States. 

February 23 — The Kuwaiti Oil Ministry announced the discovery of "huge'* 
quantities of oil and gas reserves beneath its present fields. 

February 24 — Israeli Finance Minister Rabinowitz presented an $11.5 bil- 
lion budget for the forthcoming fiscal year, beginning April 1, which 
included defense spending of $4.4 billion, or nearly 38 percent of the 
total. (The budget entailed a contraction of government services and 
programs, increased taxation, and envisaged a deficit of $363 million.) 

February 24 — Israeli Foreign Minister Allon, in an address to the Knesset, 
stated that the United States must obtain advance Israeli approval of the 
"exact terms" before undertaking any new approaches to the Arab States 
to seek a Middle East settlement. 

F ebruary 24 — In an address before the Soviet Communist Party Congress. 
Chairman Brezhnev said the Soviet Union was prepared to participate 
in international guarantees of borders in the Middle East, and he 
attacked those who "use separate partial agreements of delay, or even 
entirely place in question, genuine solutions," to the Middle East conflict. 



40 



February 24 — The New York Times reported that although Secretary Kis- 
singer had expressed support for congressional efforts to allocate $556 
million in additional aid to Israel this fiscal year, the Ford administra- 
tion privately had informed key legislators it prefers that no extra 
appropriations be made. 

February 25 — In a meeting with Israeli Ambassador Dinitz, Secretary 
Kissinger received a new Israeli negotiating position, approved by the 
Israeli Cabinet on February 22, authorizing the United States to explore 
possibilities in negotiations with Egypt, Syria, and Jordan to exchange 
territorial concessions by Israel for an end to the state of belligerency 
on the part of the Arab countries. (Israeli Foreign Minister AUon, in a 
recent interview in Israel, had spoken of "a formula much broader than 
the non-use of force, yet less than a total normalization for the time 
being.") 

February 26 — The State Department announced that U.S. Ambassadors to 
Egypt, Jordan, and Syria were being summoned to Washington to review 
what steps might be taken to promote a Middle Eastern peace settlement. 

February 26 — Saudi Arabia gave an immediate cash grsmt of $300 million 
to Egypt and also pledged an additional amount as a long-term loan to 
Egypt to help pay off its military and economic debts to the Soviet Union. 

February 27 — Spain officially withdrew from Spanish Sahara, giving control 
of the territory to Morocco and Mauritania. Algeria warned it would not 
recognize the transfer of power. 

February 27 — King Hussein arrived in Damascus for talks with Syrian 
President al-Assad on current Middle Eastern developments. 

February 29 — In Kuwait, Egyptian President al-Sadat criticized Syria and 
Jordan for trying to create a united front against Israel without Egypt. 
(Al-Sadat also warned that Syria must "shoulder the responsibility" if 
it did not choose to renew the U.N. peacekeeping mandate on the Golan 
Heights.) 

February 29 — King Hassan II of Morocco warned that he would use "all 
possible means" to defend Morocco's newly acquired Saharan territory 
against the Algerian-supported Polisario Front guerrillas. 

February 29 — Overriding protests by Israeli Arab citizens, the Israeli 
Cabinet approved a plan to expropriate 1,500 acres of Arab-owned land 
in northern Galilee for housing development projects, and 1,000 acres 
of Jewish-owned land in southern Galilee for an army training zone. 
(A spokesman said that all persons losing their land or homes would 
receive compensation and housing.) 

March 1 — It was reported that PLO Chairman Arafat, during a recent 
meeting in Beirut with Senator Stevenson, proposed that Israel create 
United Nations buffer zones in the West Bank and Gaza as a step to- 
ward a conference on a Middle East settlement and recognition of 
Israel's right to exist. 

March 1 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin announced that his government 
had strongly protested U.S. plans to supply more arms to Saudi Arabia. 

March 2 — Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Fahd said in Riyadh that his coun- 
try would be compelled to resort to war should current peaceful efforts 
aimed at an Israeli withdrawal from occupied Arab territories fail. 



41 



March 3 — South Yemeni Presidential G)uncil member, Abd al-Fatah 
Ismail, and leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and 
the Arab Gulf (PFLOAG) insurgents, Ahmad Said Sulaiman, held talks 
in Moscow with Cuban Prime Minister Castro. 

March 3 — ^The Ford administration informed Congress that it intended to 
sell six C-130 transport aircraft, together with spare parts and train- 
ing, to Egypt. (A formal proposal was forwarded on March 25.) 

March 4 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin stated that Israel would do all it 
could to prevent the sale of U.S. arms to Egypt. (Secretary Kissinger 
informed the Committee on International Relations that the planned 
sale of six C-130s to Egypt was in the national interest, particularly in 
light of the Soviet cutoff of arms to that country.) 

March 5 — Former Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir came out of political 
retirement to resume an active role in the leadership of the governing 
Labor Party and to help Prime Minister Rabin. 

March 5 — An article by Edward R. F. Sheehan in the spring issue of For- 
eign Policy disclosed allegedly secret discussions between Secretary 
Kissinger and Israeli and Arab leaders during Kissinger's Middle East 
"diplomatic shuttles." (On March 12, the State Department annoimced 
that Assistant Secretary of State Atherton had voluntarily admitted 
having read accounts of Kissinger's discussions with Middle East 
leaders to author Sheehan, and that Atherton had been "severely 
reprimanded.") 

March 6 — Algeria formally recognized the "Sahara Arab Democratic Re- 
public" and promised "political, moral and material support" to the 
"legitimate" ruler, the Polisario Front. (The following day, Morocco 
and Mauritania announced they had broken diplomatic relations with 
Algeria.) 

March 7 — ^Treasury Secretary Simon concluded a tour of Middle Eastern 
countries that had included discussions with government officials in 
Saudi Arabia, Israel, Syria, and Egypt. 

March 8 — Israeli Ambassador to the United States Dinitz warned that the 
United States was launched on a dangerous course of action in opening 
up a military supply relationship with Egypt. (Leaders of Jewish or- 
ganizations in the United States informed President Ford in a telegram 
that they were "most strenuously opposed" to the administration's plan 
to lift the military embargo against Egypt.) 

March 8 — Syrian President al- Assad said in a speech in Damascus that the 
September 1975 Egyptian-Israeli interim agreement was the starting 
point for "all setbacks" experienced by the Arabs during the past year 
and constituted "complete yielding to the demands of Israel." 

March 9 — The PLO requested United Nations action for the immediate re- 
turn of Palestinians displaced from territories that Israel has occupied 
since the June 1967 Arab-Israeli war. 

March 9 — As incidents of violence threatened the cease-fire in Lebanon, 
Syrian Foreign Minister Khaddam and Air Force commander, Lt. Gen. 
Naji Jamil, arrived in Beirut at President Franjieh's request to resume 
mediation among the country's various factions. 



42 



March 9 — Israeli border police clashed with rock-throwing Arabs in the 
West Bank following charges that Israeli soldiers had stormed a school 
the previous day and had beaten protesting students. 

March 10 — Saudi Arabia and the People's Democratic Republic of the 
Yemen (PDRY — South Yemen) announced the establishment of diplo- 
matic relations between the two countries. 

March 10 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin warned Syria not to try to black- 
mail Israel over renewal of the U.N. peacekeeping mandate on the Golan 
Heights. 

March 10— In Kuwait, PLO Chairman Arafat, said that 16,000 Pales- 
tinians had been killed and 40,000 wounded during the 11-month Leba- 
nese civil war, the objective of which, he claimed, was and remained 
the liquidation of the Palestinian revolution, and to strike at the Pales- 
tinian presence in Lebanon and at the Arab cause. 

March 11 — The commander of the Beirut garrison, Brig. Aziz Ahdab, de- 
clared a state of emergency throughout Lebanon and demanded the im- 
mediate resignation of President Franjieh, calling on parliament to 
elect a new president within 7 days. In a radio address. Prime Min- 
ister Karami announced that he was resigning "in the face of perplex- 
ing and rejectionist stands" taken by warring Lebanese factions. 

March 11 — Israel stepped up its military alert along its border with 
Lebanon as rebel Muslim units of the Lebanese army occupied several 
outposts near the border. 

March 11 — The Libyan Government ordered the deportation of some 6,000 
Egyptians and confiscated their property, reportedly in retaliation for 
the arrest by Egyptian authorities in Cairo of 27 alleged Libyan spies. 

March 12 — It was reported that Cuban Prime Minister Castro had arrived 
in Algiers for talks with President Boumedienne and leaders of the 
Polisario Front. 

March 14 — Egyptian President al-Sadat proposed that the Egyptian-Soviet 
treaty of friendship and cooperation be dissolved, in large measure be- 
cause of Moscow's refusal to supply his government with spare parts 
for its Soviet-built weapons systems and aircraft. (The following day 
the Egyptian Parliament nullified the treaty by a 307-2 vote.) 

March 15 — Rebel Lebanese army units under Lt. Ahmad Khatib and under 
Brig. Ahdab united on plans to use force to oust President Franjieh 
from ofl&ce following the latter's refusal to resign. 

March 15 — Iran threatened to break diplomatic relations with Cuba over 
a reported meeting in Moscow between Prime Minister Castro and 
exiled Communist (Tudeh) leader Iraj Eskandari. 

March 15 — An article in the Washington Post stated that, according to 
senior CIA officials, Israel was estimated to have from 10 to 20 nuclear 
weapons "ready and available for use." 

March 16 — TASS charged that Egyptian President al-Sadat's action in 
terminating the Egyptian-Soviet treaty was a "new manifestation of the 
unfriendly policy in regards to the Soviet Union that he has actually 
been pursuing for a long time," and warned that the Egyptians would 
be responsible for the consequences. 



43 



March 16 — The Netherlands recalled its charge d'affaires from Baghdad 
for consultations following the execution by Iraqi authorities of a Dutch 
Jew accused of espionage. 

March 17 — Syrian President al- Assad opened negotiations in Damascus 
with Lebanese Christian and Muslim leaders and with Palestinian rep- 
resentatives in an effort to bring about a cease-fire in the Lebanese 
conflict. 

March 17— The Indian Foreign Ministry acknowledged that "contractual 
commitments" with the Soviet Union prevented India from supplying 
Egypt with spare parts for the latter's MIG-21 jet aircraft and other 
Soviet-supplied equipment. 

March 18 — Israeli security forces moved into east Jerusalem and several 
towns in the West Bank to break up violent anti-Israeli demonstrations. 

March 21 — The Israeli Supreme Court in Jerusalem upheld the authority 
of police to ban Jewish prayer on the Temple Mount, the site of sacred 
Muslim shrines. 

March 21 — A U.S. military mission that included Acting Assistant Secre- 
tary of Defense Amos Jordan and Lt. Gen. Howard Fish arrived in 
Saudi Arabia for conferences with Saudi officials ; the mission was also 
scheduled to travel to the Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) . 

March 22 — Israeli and PLO delegations, facing each other for the first 
time in the U.N. Security Council, traded charges over responsibility 
for anti-Israeli violence in the occupied West Bank. (U.S. Ambassador 
Scranton had objected to PLO participation in the debate but had been 
voted down 11-1, with 3 abstentions.) 

March 22 — West Bank Arab notables drafted a nine-point document, to be 
delivered to Israeli occupation authorities, which included demands 
that the Israelis undertake to preserve Muslim holy sites and bar the 
establishment of Jewish settlements in the occupied territories. 

March 23 — U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Scranton said in the 
Security Council that the presence of Israeli settlements in occupied 
Arab territory was "seen by my government as an obstacle to the suc- 
cess of the negotiations for a just and final peace between Israel and 
its neighbors." He stated that substantial resettlement of the Israeli 
civilian population in the occupied territories, including east Jerusalem, 
was illegal under the Geneva Convention covering occupation rights 
and duties. (The following day, the State Department, in response to 
Israeli criticism of Scranton's speech, said that this was a restatement 
of U.S. policy extending back to 1968.) 

March 23 — Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky, returning from a fact- 
finding mission to Arab countries as head of a Socialist International 
delegation, said that his government would permit the PLO to open an 
office in Vienna. 

March 23 — Tunisia ordered the expulsion of three Libyan diplomats fol- 
lowing the discovery of an assassination plot against Tunisian officials. 

March 25 — The United States vetoed a Security Council resolution (voted 
14-1) deploring Israel's annexation of Jerusalem and calling for an 
end to Israeli actions against the inhabitants of occupied Arab 
territory. 



44 



March 25 — Lebanese President Franjieh retreated from his hillside palace 
after heavy shelling from opposition forces, and his supporters retali- 
ated by bombarding Beirut, killing numerous residents. (The death 
toll in Lebanon in the 11-month civil war was estimated as having 
reached 15,000 dead and nearly 33,000 wounded.) 

March 27 — ^The Washington Post reported that Egyptian President al- 
Sadat, in an interview, called the U.S. proposal to sell his government 
six C-130 transport aircraft "a very small thing," but he made it clear 
that the evolving relationship with the United States was of prime 
importance to Egypt. 

March 29 — Secretary Kissinger, in an appearance before the Committee 
on International Relations, said that failure to approve the proposed 
sale of six C-130s to Egypt would be a matter "of utmost gravity," and 
that if Congress rejected the proposal, "it will be a slap in the face of 
Sadat." 

March 29 — State Department spokesman Robert Funseth announced a 
U.S. warning to Syria and Israel against intervention in the Lebanese 
civil war. 

March 29 — Syria halted shipments of arms, food and medicine to Pales- 
tinian forces in Lebanon in an effort to pressure them to impose a cease- 
fire on Lebanese Druze leader, Kamal Jumblatt. 

March 29 — Egyptian President al-Sadat arrived in West Germany on the 
first leg of a five-nation European tour aimed at seeking economic aid 
and military equipment following the abrogation of the Soviet-Egyptian 
friendship treaty. 

March 29 — In a letter to Senator Brooke, President Ford said recent con- 
gressional cuts in foreign military aid would lead to "serious reduc- 
tions ... in the program for Jordan, reducing the incentive for this 
moderate Arab country to play a helpful role in the Middle East." 

March 30 — President Ford and King Hussein, who arrived in Washington, 
issued a joint appeal for a cease-fire and a political solution in Lebanon. 

March 30 — Five Arabs were killed as Israeli security forces moved to halt 
riots in Israel stemming from a day-long strike called by the Israeh 
Communist Party. 

March 31 — Special U.S. envoy L. Dean Brown arrived in Beirut in a direct 
American effort to achieve a cease-fire in Lebanon. 

March 31 — Lebanese Prime Minister Karami rejected any U.N. involve- 
ment in the Lebanese civil war, stating that the problem was "an in- 
ternal matter." 

March 31 — The Israeli Knesset overwhelmingly defeated a Communist no- 
confidence motion against Prime Minister Rabin's government. 

March 31 — The West German Government announced it will give Egypt 
$120 million in credit guarantees in addition to $92 million in economic 
assistance. 

April 1 — Following reported Syrian pressures on Lebanese leftist groups 
to halt the fighting, Beirut Radio announced that the various factions in 
Lebanon's civil war had agreed to a 10-day cease-fire designed to give 
Parliament time to elect a new President. 



45 



April 2 — King Hussein said in Chicago that the "twin policies of Israel 
have been to buy time and hold territory . . . time has served only to 
escalate and magnify the problem." 

April 4 — Time magazine reported that Israel possessed 13 nuclear weapons 
which had been hastily prepared during the 1973 Arab-Israeli war. 

April 4 — Secretary Kissinger told the American Jewish Congress that the 
"survival and security of Israel are unequivocal and permanent moral 
commitments of the United States," and that the United States "will never 
abandon Israel — either by failing to provide crucial assistance, or by 
misconceived or separate negotiations, or by irresolution when challenged 
to meet our own responsibility to maintain the global balance of power." 

April 4 — In an interview published in the Boston Globe, U.S. Ambassador 
to the United Nations, William Scranton, said that U.S. Middle Eastern 
policy had not tilted toward the Arab position. 

April 5 — The State Department confirmed that the United States had been 
informed by the Bahraini Government it desired to phase out use by 
1977 of its facilities by the U.S. Navy Middle East Force. 

April 5 — Under Secretary of State Sisco told the Senate Subcommittee on 
Refugees that the United States had no plans to intervene in Lebanon 
but that there were plans to evacuate Americans from that country if 
necessary. (Sisco declined to comment on whether some form of mili- 
tary intervention might be possible in that event. ) 

April 6 — Speaking in California, King Hussein proposed a four-point pro- 
gram for peace in the Middle East that included : ( 1 ) guarantees for all 
Middle Eastern states, including Israel; (2) withdrawal by Israel from 
all lands occupied since 1967; (3) self-determination for the Palestin- 
ians; (4) the right of Palestinians to return to their homes or to receive 
compensation. 

April 6 — Egyptian President al-Sadat told Italian Government leaders that 
a new Geneva Conference on the Middle East should be convened after 
the U.S. November Presidential election. (Al-Sadat also said that Sec- 
retary Kissinger's step-by-step diplomacy was no longer viable. ) 

April 7 — In a letter to House Speaker Albert, President Ford warned that 
because of the Federal deficit and budgetary pressures, he would be 
compelled to veto a foreign aid bill if it contained an additional $550 mil- 
lion in aid for Israel to cover the 3-month transitional quarter ending 
October 1, 1976. 

April 7 — Iran severed diplomatic relations with Cuba because of alleged 
interference by Prime Minister Castro in internal Iranian affairs. 

April 8 — Egyptian President al-Sadat warned Israel that if it deploys 
nuclear weapons, Egypt would do the same. 

April 9 — Following his appearance before a closed session of the Senate 
Committee on Foreign Relations, Secretary Kissinger told newsmen 
that progress was being made toward a politicial solution of the 
Lebanese crisis but there still remained a risk of outside intervention. 
(In Beirut, Muslim and Christian leaders agreed to extend the cease- 
fire, but the truce apparently broke down as fighting was reported 
throughout the country.) 



81-813 O - 77 - 4 



46 



April 12 — State Department spokesman John Trattner denied that the 
United States had been acting as a middleman between Syria and Israel 
to insure that the Israeli Government would not react to Syrian military 
action in Lebanon. 

April 12 — Israeli officials announced that West Bank election results showed 
that the towns of Nablus, Hebron, and Ramallah had been won by 
candidates who advocated the creation of a Palestinian state. (Election 
officials reported that 72 percent of the territory's eligible 88,000 voters 
had turned out in 22 municipalities.) 

April 13 — The House Committee on International Relations, on a voice 
vote, agreed to set aside five resolutions aimed at blocking the sale of 
six C-130 transport aircraft to Egypt. (The previous day. Senate 
opposition to the sale evaporated when Senator Case announced he 
would not press his resolution for disapproval after having received 
State Department assurances on training for Egyptian officers. ) 

April 14 — Secretary Kissinger told the Senate Subcommittee on Foreign 
Operations of the Committee on Appropriations that the situation in 
Lebanon had "greatly improved" in the past 3 weeks, that a pattern 
for a political settlement was emerging, and that the United States had 
played a major role in seeking a solution to the conflict. Kissinger ac- 
knowledged that Syria had deployed military forces in the immediate 
border areas of Lebanon, and he later told reporters that Israel was 
willing to tolerate the present level of such forces. 

April 15 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin stated that Israel may have to 
reassess its military supply relationship with the United States if Wash- 
ington refused its demand for $550 million in additional aid. 

April 15 — ^The Defense Department announced that it had halted produc- 
tion of Hawk missiles for Jordan because of "financial problems the 
Jordanian Government is having." 

April 15 — Egyptian President al-Sadat, reporting on his five-nation Euro- 
pean tour, informed the Egyptian National Security Council that he 
had secured new sources of weapons to replace the recently abrogated 
agreement by which Egypt had been supplied with Soviet arms. 

April 16 — Some 40,000 Israelis marched into the occupied West Bank and 
demanded that Israel annex the territory, contending that it was part 
of historical Israel. 

April 16 — A communique issued in Rabat announced that Morocco and 
Mauritania had agreed to share the lucrative phosphate mines in Western 
Sahara, wdth the extent of Mauritanian participation to be determined 
later by joint agreement. 

April 19 — Egyptian Vice President Mbarak, accompanied by governmental 
and military leaders, opened talks in Peking with Chinese leaders on 
increased Chinese military assistance to Egypt. 

April 19 — Israel devalued its pound by a further 2 percent — the 10th 
devaluation since June 1975. 

April 19 — White House Press Secretary Nessen announced that President 
Ford had dropped his total opposition to all external military interven- 
tion in Lebanon, stating that Syria's use of its troops represented "a 
constructive role," and that Ford would oppose any intervention in 
Lebanon "Uiat could lead to a Middle East confrontation or war." 



47 



April 19 — Israeli troops killed one Arab and wounded three others while 
breaking up demonstrations opposing the April 16 march by Israelis 
across the occupied West Bank. 

April 21 — It was reported that China had agreed to supply military equip- 
ment and economic aid to Egypt. 

April 25 — Jordanian oflBcials were reported to have announced that the 
United States had agreed to lower the price of Hawk missile systems 
and that the Jordanian Government was discussing the American offer 
with Saudi Arabia in an effort to persuade the latter to finance the 
deal. 

April 26 — Two Israeli newspapers reported that Syrian President al- Assad 
had indicated his readiness to meet with President Ford and that the 
meeting might take place before May 31, the expiration date for the 
mandate of U.N. peacekeeping forces on the Golan Heights. (White 
House Deputy Press Secretary John Carlson subsequently said that there 
was an "open possibility' that Ford would meet with Al-Assad in the 
near future.) 

April 26 — A four-member Egyptian delegation, led by Trade Minister 
Zakaria Tewfig, arrived in Moscow to conduct talks with Soviet 
officials. 

April 26 — Egyptian President al-Sadat suggested at a Cairo news con- 
ference that Egypt would delare a state of nonbelligerency if Israel with- 
drew from Arab territory seized in 1967. 

April 28 — Israeli Defense Minister Peres said Syrian involvement in the 
Lebanese civil war was part of an overall plan to take over the country 
in order to stage future attacks against Israel. 

April 29 — Eleven Mauritanian soldiers and 27 Polisario guerrillas were 
killed in a 2-day clash in Western Sahara. 

April 30 — In a major blow to Syrian efforts to achieve a solution to the 
civil strife in Lebanon, heavy fighting and extremist opposition forced 
the Lebanese Parliament to postpone elections for a new President. 

May 3 — Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi called for an urgent meeting of 
the U.N. Security Council, with PLO participation, to discuss Israel's 
"measures of oppression and terrorism" in the West Bank and Gaza 
against the Palestinian people. (Israeli officials subsequently called the 
Egyptian request an infringement of the September 1975 Sinai agreement 
by which Egypt pledged to tone down its diplomatic warfare against 
Israel.) 

May 4 — Former U.S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia James Akins said before 
the Senate Subcommittee on Multinational Corporations that the State 
Department had ignored Saudi offers to roll back oil price increases and 
to prevent the establishment of a Soviet Indian Ocean base in Somalia. 

May 6 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin, in a speech marking his country's 28th 
anniversary of independence, vowed that Israel would "maintam law 
and public order" in territory captured from Jordan, Egypt, and Syria. 
(Previously, he had warned Israelis that the United States eventually 
may wawer from its present firm stand against talks with the PLO.) 

May 9 — In a speech in Baltimore, Secretary Kissinger, warning that con- 
tinuation of the status quo constituted the greatest risk in the Middle 



48 



East, said negotiations must take place between all parties in the region, 
conceding that "any negotiation will require Israel to exchange territory 
in return for political and therefore much less concrete concessions." 
(Kissinger reafl&rmed the United States' commitment to Israel's sur- 
vival and security and stated there could be *'no imposed solutions" to 
a Middle East settlement by outside powers.) 

May 9 — The Israeli Cabinet adopted a compromise plan to deal with Jewish 
settlers in the occupied West Bank, declaring that future settlements 
would be approved only in the Jordan valley and along the pre- 1967- 
war border between the West Bank and Israel. 

May 9 — Federal Energy Administrator Frank Zarb confirmed in Tehran 
that some American defense contractors and the Iranian government 
were discussing a possible trade of Iranian oil for American arms, but 
he said no firm arrangements had as yet been concluded. 

May 10 — State Department spokesman Robert Funseth, commenting on 
the Lebanese election on May 8 of Elias Sarkis to succeed outgoing Presi- 
dent Sulaiman Franjieh, said that the United States hoped "the Leb- 
anese constitutional process continues to go forward and, as before, 
we stand ready to help in any way we can in keeping with our goal of 
preserving the sovereignty, territorial integrity, unity, and national 
cohesion of Lebanon." (The subsequent outbreak of fresh fighting in 
that country, however, wrecked immediate hopes for peace between the 
various factions.) 

May 10 — A World Health Organization (WHO) report on conditions in 
the West Bank and Gaza described health services as improved since 
Israeli occupation began in 1967, with some now on a high technical 
level. (On May 17, the World Health assembly in Geneva, on the initia- 
tive of India and Arab states, approved by a 65-18 vote, with 14 ab- 
stentions, a motion declaring the WHO report "inadmissible.") 

May 10 — In an interview published in the Jerusalem Post, President Ford 
said it was time to discuss an overall settlement of the Middle East con- 
flict, and that the United States had "gone about as far as we can in 
the step-by-step process" of Arab-Israeli negotiations. 

May 11 — The New York Times reported that Israel was drawing up plans 
for the establishment of a large number of settlements, ranging from 
agricultural villages to industrial towns, in the occupied Golan Heights, 
the West Bank, the Jordan valley, and the Rafah area of Gaza over the 
next several years. 

May 12 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin declared that there was a chance 
both Egypt and Syria would agree to negotiations to end the state of 
war with Israel sometime in 1976. 

May 12 — Israeli Foreign Minister Allon warned that the recently reported 
cooperation between Egypt and the PLO would turn back the clock on 
relations between Egypt and Israel. 

May 13 — Speaking in Washington before the American Jewish Committee, 
President Ford declared that the United States "will remain the ulti- 
mate guarantor of Israel's freedom," and that "the fundamental Amer- 
ican-Israeli friendship" would not be eroded despite differences that 
may arise between the two countries. 



49 



May 14 — It was reported that Secretary Kissinger and Israeli Ambassador 
Dinitz had agreed on a formula for continued U.S. military aid to 
Israel and had discussed the dangers of a general Middle East war 
stemming from the renewed fighting in Lebanon. (Kissinger also was 
reported to have emphasized U.S. opposition to Israeli plans to estab- 
lish more Jewish settlements in occupied Arab territories.) 

May 15 — PLO leaders appealed to Syria to end its military intervention in 
Lebanon and its involvement "in a bloody conflict against the national 
movement and the Palestinian revolution" for its own political pur- 
poses. (The growing dispute between Syria and the PLO centered on 
the Syrian land and sea blockade of territory held by Palestinians 
and the Lebanese Muslim-Leftist Alliance; and on Palestinian concern 
over Syrian efforts to bring the guerrilla movement under its control 
to permit pursuit of a policy of accommodation with the United States 
and Israel.) 

May 15 — Israeli Ambassador to the United Nations Chaim Herzog de- 
nounced the terrorist activities of the Jewish Defense League in New 
York, calling it a small, irresponsible group. 

May 16 — Nabil Shaat, head of the PLO planning section, said in Brussels 
that all Israeli Jews will be formally recognized as Palestinians by the 
Palestinian National Council under a planned amendment to article 
6 of the PLO National Covenent. (The amendment would bring the 
Covenant in line with the PLO program for a democratic, secular 
Palestinian state for all its inhabitants irrespective of religion.) 

May 16 — At the seventh Islamic Conference in Istanbul, foreign ministers 
from 40 Muslim nations passed a resolution on the Middle East urg- 
ing Islamic countries to sever all relations with Israel and equating 
Zionism with racism. (The Conference also established a $60 million 
fund to counter Israeli rule in occupied Arab territories.) 

May 16 — Eleven terrorists and four policemen were killed in shootouts at 
three Marxist guerrilla hideouts in a residential section of Tehran. 

May 17 — A Soviet delegation, led by Deputy Defense Minister Pavel 
Kutakhov and two air force generals, arrived in Jordan for 4 days 
of talks on Jordanian air defense needs in response to an invitation by 
Jordanian air force commander General Aboud Salim. 

May 17 — Libyan Prime Minister Jalloud unexpectedly arrived in Beirut in 
an apparent attempt to mediate the rift between Syria and Palestin- 
ian and Muslim factions in the Lebanese civil war. (Jalloud had flown 
from Damascus, where he had met with Syrian President al-Assad, 
and was accompanied by PLO Chairman Arafat. ) 

May 1 7 — A report published by Amnesty International stated that hundreds 
of persons had "disappeared" in the People's Democratic Republic of 
the Yemen and that several thousand political prisoners were held in 
that country. 

May 18 — The financial weekly Barrens stated that after two decades of 
spectacular economic growth, Israel was running into severe reces- 
sion, and its dependence on American aid was causing considerable 
concern. 



50 



I 



May 19 — In a report to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations by : 

Senators Javits, Haskell, Stevenson, and Abourezk, who recently had ' 

returned from the Middle East, it was recommended that Israel with- ' 
draw from, and return, occupied Arab territories as a necessary step 

toward achieving peace in that region. I 

May 20 — It was reported that internal problems in Syria, in part generated | 
by the government's intervention in Lebanon, were responsible for i 
the abrupt cancellation of Syria's scheduled conference with Egypt | 
in Riyadh, with Saudi Arabia and Kuwait acting as mediators, to 
resolve differences between the two countries. (The Syrian Govern- 
ment on May 19 had announced the postponement "to permit further 
consultation.") | 

May 23 — A senior State Department official indicated that the United States 
was giving serious consideration to an offer by France to send peace- 
keeping forces into Lebanon. (Lebanese Prime Minister Karami joined i 
Muslim-Leftist Alliance factions in rejecting the French offer, stating ' 
that Lebanon "will never go back to the days of the mandate.") | 

May 25 — Iranian Prime Minister Hoveyda announced that Iran had signed 
contracts to purchase two nuclear powerplants from France. 1 

May 25 — ^The State Department announced that the Soviet Union was per- ' 
mitting a slightly higher level of emigration since the Helsinki Con- i 
ference, but the level still remained far below that when detente was in j 
full bloom. ! 

May 26 — ^The U.N. Security Council issued a majority opinion deploring j 

the establishment of Israeli settlements on Arab territories, but the | 

United States rejected the measure. (The opinion called upon Israel I 

to rescind actions altering the character of occupied Arab lands and i 

deplored the Israeli practice of setting up new villages there.) j 

May 2& — Following unannounced discussions between Soviet and Israeli < 

diplomats in Washington and at the United Nations, initiated by the \ 

Soviets, the Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz reported that the Foreign Minis- j 

try had issued instructions requiring home-office authorization prior j 

to further contacts with Soviet representatives. j 

May 26 — Secretary Kissinger, speaking before a Conference of Central ; 

Treaty Organization (CENTO) ministers in London, said that the time ! 

was approaching "when new impetus must be given to movement towards | 

an overall peace" in the Middle East, and that the civil war in Lebanon | 

had "preoccupied the attention of many of the parties" in the region, i 

(Iranian Foreign Minister Khalatbari declared at the conference that ; 

the passage of recent events in southern Africa — the Soviet-supported ! 

Cuban invasion of Angola — "could repeat themselves in our immediate \ 
neighborhood with disastrous repercussions.") 

May 27 — U.N. Secretary General Waldheim announced that Syria had j 
agreed to extend the mandate for the U.N. Disengagement Observer j 
Force (UNDOF) in the Golan Heights for a further 6 months. j 

May 27 — Saudi Arabian King Khalid concluded 4 days of talks with the i 

Shah of Iran and other Iranian officials reportedly aimed at resolving j 

differences over the price of oil and at promoting security arrangements i 
in the Persian Gulf. 



51 



May 27 — In Beirut, gunmen forced their way into the home of Lebanese 
Druze leader Kamal Jumblatt's sister, Mrs. Linda al-Atrash, killing her 
and wounding her two daughters, thereby compelling a postponement of 
talks between Jumblatt and President-elect Sarkis for a week. 

May 27 — Israeli U.N. Ambassador Herzog rejected the U.S. position that 
the establishment of Jewish settlements on Arab lands constituted an 
obstacle to peace in the Middle East. 

May 28 — A report by the International Commission of Jurists on human 
rights and the legal system in Iran declared that the Iranian Government 
had not implemented basic civil and political rights of its citizens and 
that "there is abundant evidence showing the systematic use of imper- 
missible methods of psychological and physical torture of political 
suspects during interrogation." 

May 30 — Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi recommended that the Arab 
League revise the status of the PLO from that of an observer to full 
membership in order to "bolster [the PLO's] international position and 
give it significant weight." 

May 31 — Syria moved fresh troops into northern Lebanon to block a 
Muslim-Leftist Alliance seige of two Christian towns in the Akkar valley. 
(Lebanese Druze leader Jumblatt and moderate Christian leader Roy- 
mond Edde subsequently charged that the United States had agreed to a 
plan whereby Lebanon would be partitioned, with most of the country 
moving under Syrian control.) 

May 31 — Israel and South Africa announced a program to strengthen 

scientific and technological relations. 

June 1 — A Syrian task force, including an armored brigade, entered east- 
central Lebanon in an effort to halt fighting between that country's 
warring factions. (The PLO issued a statement charging that the inva- 
sion was "the beginning of a Syrian occupation" of Lebanon. Israeli 
Foreign Minister Allon declared that Israel had the right "to take the 
necessary measures to protect our interests" if its security were threat- 
ened by the Syrian move. State Department spokesman Robert Funseth 
said the United States "continues to warn all concerned about the dan- 
gers of escalating a civil strife into an international conflict.") 

June 1 — White House Press Secretary Ron Nessen stated that President 
Ford had instructed members of his administration to seek an overall 
peace settlement for the Middle East, and that Ford and his advisers 
were studying the possibility of a preliminary meeting of all parties con- 
cerned in Geneva to be followed by a full-scale conference. 

June 1 — Israeli Foreign Minister Allon called for a meeting between Israel, 
Jordan, and leaders of the occupied West Bank to discuss the territory's 
future. 

June I— Soviet Prime Minister Kosygin arrived in Damascus from Iraq for 
3 days of talks with Syrian President al-Assad and other officials. (The 
Defense Department announced that since May 27 the Soviet Union had 
increased its Mediterranean fleet to 65 ships, including a helicopter 
carrier.) 

June 3 — Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi, in a letter to Arab League Secre- 
tary General Mahoud Riad, condemned the Syrian intervention into 
Lebanon and called for an urgent meeting of Arab foreign ministers to 
discuss the situation. 



62 

June 5 — The Egyptian Foreign Ministry announced it had ordered Syria to 
close its Embassy in Cairo and all Syrian diplomats to leave the country j 
within 48 hours. (The ministry also said that the Egyptian Embassy in j 
Damascus was being closed.) j 

June 7 — Egyptian President al-Sadat stated in a message opening a Middle | 

East Development Conference in Cairo that Egypt's recovery from infla- j 

tion and other economic problems depended upon the achievement of a j 

permanent peace in the region, and that it was "imperative that an appli- j 
cable Middle East peace be achieved, not only for Egypt, but for all 
parties involved." 

June 7 — In its first direct attack against Al Fatah, Syria accused the Pales- 
tinian group of trying to partition Lebanon "so that part of it would j 
become an alternative to Palestine." (The statement also said that clashes I 
in Lebanon which had killed or wounded large numbers of people on 
June 6 had been "treacherously and premediatedly engineered by Al i 
Fatah and its allies.") j 

June 8 — Appearing before the House Committee on International Relations, I 
Assistant Secretary of State Joseph Greenwald and Deputy Secretary of 
Defense William Clement argued that proposed legislation prohibiting 
American companies from complying with the Arab boycott against 
Israel would "contribute to a sense of confrontation and would be j 
counterproductive," cause a "deterioration of relationships with coun- | 
tries with which we are making progress," and "adversely affect our j 
efforts to reach a settlement" in the Middle East. ! 

June 9 — Syria opened a third front in its intervention in Lebanon meeting j 

stiff resistance from Palestinian and Muslim Leftist Alliance forces. (An j 
official Soviet statement released by Toss warned Damascus to halt its 

action and also contained a warning to Lebanon, because of its offer ■ 

to send peacekeeping troops to Lebanon, and to the United States, ' 

because of the presence of U.S. ships off the Lebanese coast.) j 

June 10 — In Cairo, the Arab League voted to seek a cease-fire in Lebanon, j 
the withdrawal of Syrian troops, and their replacement by a joint Arab ; 
peace-keeping force, and League mediators flew to Damascus to discuss i 
the proposal with Syrian President al- Assad. (Lebanese President Fran- 
jieh said that Lebanon "will resist with all its means and resources an 
Arab force that enters its territory against its will and without its prior 
agreement.") | 

June 10 — President Ford conferred with Sudanese President Jaafar i 
Numeiri at the White House. I 

June 11 — The PLO accused Syria of injecting new troops into Lebanon 
and of failing to implement the agreement reached by Arab foreign min- 
isters in Cairo on a collective peacemaking initiative in that country. 

June 14 — Syrian troops and armor captured Palestinian and leftist bases in j 
southeast Lebanon and advanced to within 14 miles of the Israeli border. ] 
(Palestinian leaders appealed to Arab states for a food airlift to break 
Syria's blockade of Lebanon's ma j or ports. ) 

June 14 — Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi said that Syria had received 
"the green light" to intervene militarily in Lebanon following contacts 
with the United States and Israel through France and Jordan, and that ' 
the Soviet Union and the United States had agreed not to permit the 
Lebanese situation to lead to a confrontation between them. i 



1 



53 

June 15 — Following reports that Syrian armored columns had captured 

a number of Palestinian positions to within 2% miles of the Israeli j 
border, Israeli Prime Minister Rabin told the Knesset that "should a ^ 
new situation [in Lebanon] be created, there could be a change in our j 
position as well, as will be necessitated by our security needs." ' 

June 15 — The New York Times reported that Saudi Arabia was seeking to j 
purchase 1,900 Sidewinder interceptor missiles from the United States. | 

June 16 — U.S. Ambassador to Lebanon Francis Meloy, Economic Coun- 
selor Robert Waring, and their Lebanese driver were kidnaped and 
murdered in Beirut while traveling to a meeting with Lebanese President- 
elect Sarkis. (The United States subsequently urged all Americans to 
leave Lebanon.) 

June 18 — ^The PLO announced that it had arrested gunmen responsible for 
the murders of U.S. Ambassador Meloy, his aide and driver, and would 
hand them over to the pan-Arab peace-keeping force scheduled to 
arrive in Lebanon to enforce a ceasefire. 

June 18 — Syrian President al- Assad arrived in Paris for 3 days of talks on 
the Lebanese situation with French President d'Estaing. 

June 20 — A U.S. Navy landing craft evacuated 263 Americans and Euro- 
peans from Lebanon after fighting had blocked a planned overland ^ 
convoy evacuation to Damascus. (Palestinian and Muslim Leftist Al- 
liance troops provided security for the evacuation.) 

June 21 — It was reported that the Israeli Defense Ministry will order a i 
reassessment of the country's military activities because of budget cuts j 
and reduced U.S. financial aid. i 

June 21 — Two battalions of Syrian and Libyan troops arrived in Beirut | 
as the vanguard of the pan -Arab peace-keeping force. j 

June 21 — Egyptian President al-Sadat, Saudi Arabian King Khalid, and 1 
PLO Qiairman Arafat opened talks in Riyadh aimed at "current efforts ] 
to stop the bloodshed in Lebanon." 

June 21 — The Polisario Front confirmed the death of its Secretary Gen- 
eral, Sayid al-Wali, but denied he had been killed when Polisario i 
guerrillas had attacked the Mauritanian capital of Nouakchott earlier 
in June. 

June 22 — Secretary Kissinger stated that the United States supported French \ 
proposals to send a peace-keeping force into Lebanon and to host a i 
peace conference to end the Lebanese civil war. i 

June 22 — President Ford announced that he was sending Deputy Assistant I 
Secretary of State Talcott Seelye to Beirut temporarily to take charge 
of the U.S. Ejnbassy. 

June 23 — Pravda commented that the Lebanese crisis had sharply worsened I 
in recent days and stated that "the senseless and provocative assassina- ' 
tion" of the U.S. diplomats on June 16 "served as a pretext for a debate 
in NATO circles about the possibility of their open armed interference 
in the affairs of Lebanon." 

June 23 — Lebanese Christian forces began an assault on the Palestinian j 
refugee camps of Jisir Alpashah and Tal Zaatar. i 



54 



June 23 — Egyptian President al-Sadat said in Doha, Qatar, that the oppor- 
tunity still existed for resumption of the Geneva Conference on the 
Middle East this year, and, "as soon as the American elections are over, 
the United States can then play its role" in such a conference. 

June 24 — At the conclusion of a 2-day conference between Egyptian Prime 
Minister Salim and Syrian Prime Minister al-Ayyoubi in Riyadh, it 
was announced Egypt and Syria had agreed to set up a joint committee 
to coordinate political and military strategy toward Israel, halt their 
propaganda war, and arrange a sununit meeting between Presidents 
al-Sadat and al-Assad, thus ending a 10-month rift between the two 
countries. 

June 27 — Palestinian terrorists hijacked an Air France jet airliner over 
Greece during a flight from Tel Aviv to Paris and flew its 256 passengers 
and crew to Entebbe Airport, Uganda, after a refueling stop in Libya. 

June 28 — A communique issued at the conclusion of a 12-day visit to Mos- 
cow by Jordanian King Hussein called for an "all embracing" Middle 
East settlement "and not by separate and partial measures." (No men- 
tion was made of a possible Jordanian purchase of a Soviet air defense 
system which King Hussein earlier had said he would discuss with 
Soviet leaders during his visit.) 

June 29 — The United States vetoed a Security Council resolution endorsing 
a report submitted by a 20-nation Palestinian Rights Committee that 
called for an Israeli withdrawal from occupied Arab territories and 
affirmed the rights of Palestinians to national independence. (The report 
demanded that Israel withdraw from the West Bank and Gaza which 
then would be placed under U.N. jurisdiction and eventually turned over 
to the PLO.) 

June 30 — Arab League envoy Hassan Sabri al-Kholi, who had arranged a 
cease-fire the previous evening, left Beirut for Damascus as Christian 
forces captured one of the two Palestinian refugee camps they had been 
attacking since June 23 and continued their assault on the second camp. 

June 30 — Egypt expelled Libyan charge d'affaires Milod Sadiq after he 
had been detained and accused of distributing "seditious leaflets insti- 
gating rebellion" against the government of President al-Sadat. 

July 1 — The Israeli Government reversed a standing policy by announcing 
its decision to negotiate with pro-Palestinian terrorists for the release 
of hostages aboard an Air France airliner held at Entebbe Airport, 
Uganda. (The hijackers had given a deadline of July 4 for the release 
of extremists imprisoned in Israel, France, Switzerland, West Germany, 
and Kenya. ) 

July 1 — A contingent of 1,300 Saudi Arabian and Sudanese troops arrived 
in Lebanon to join the pan- Arab peace-keeping force attempting to 
establish a truce in the country's civil war. 

July 4 — An Israeli army spokesman announced in Tel Aviv that an Israeli 
airborne commando force had successfully rescued 103 Jewish (mostly 
Israeli) and French hostages held at Entebbe Airport, Uganda. (Seven 
pro-Palestinian hijackers and terrorists had been killed, and a number 
of Soviet-supplied Ugandan air force aircraft destroyed.) 



55 



July 5 — A meeting scheduled between Arab League mediators and Lebanese 
Christian leaders was canceled because of intense fighting in various 
parts of the country. (The previous day, Syrian Foreign Minister 
Khaddam, PLO Chairman Arafat, and Lebanese Muslim Leftist Alliance 
leaders had held talks at Sofar, near Beirut, under the auspices of Arab 
League Secretary General Riad.) 

July 5 — U.N. Secretary General Waldheim stated that the Israeli raid on 
Entebbe Airport constituted a violation of Uganda's sovereignty, but 
he expressed satisfaction that the lives of hostages had been saved. (At 
its meeting in Mauritius, the OAU unanimously passed a resolution 
condemning the Israeli action and calling for a Security Council session 
to take "all appropriate measures" against Israel.) 

July 5 — Secretary Kissinger said in Chicago that it was "essential that some 
international arrangements be made to deal with terrorists, because it 
cannot be tolerated that innocent people become the playthings of 
international thugs." 

July 5 — Egyptian Minister of War General Gamassi, at the conclusion of 
a visit to the United Kingdom, said in an interview that decisions on the 
creation of an Egyptian arms industry, with British and French partic- 
ipation, will be taken in August at a meeting of defense ministers from 
Saudi Arabia, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. 

July 6 — The Sudan broke off diplomatic relations with Libya in response 
to the Libyan Government's alleged role during the abortive coup d'etat 
of July 2 against President Nimeiri. (The following day, the Arab League 
announced in Cairo that the Sudan had been requested to drop charges 
against Libya in the Security Council in the interests of Arab unity.) 

July 8 — Speaking at a luncheon in Washington for Saudi Arabian Second 
Deputy Prime Minister Abdullah bin Abd al-Saud, Secretary Kissinger 
called for a roundtable conference of all parties involved in the fighting 
in Lebanon, declaring that the civil war was preventing an overall 
Middle East peace settlement. 

July 8 — It was reported that the Defense Department had discouraged Saudi 
Arabia from purchasing advanced fighter aircraft such as the F-14 and 
F-15 on the grounds that they were too sophisticated for the Saudi air 
force to maintain and fly, and had advised that the Saudis should 
build their capability and experience around the less complex F-5 
fighters purchased from the United States. 

July 9 — Iraqi Vice President Saddam Hussain al-Takriti said that his 
country's leadership had "studied the general Arab situation" and had 
decided to form a new Arab front against Israel, comprising Iraq, Libya, 
Algeria, and the Palestinians. 

July 9 — On his return from four days of discussions in Moscow, Syrian 
Foreign Minister Khaddam said he had obtained agreement from Soviet 
leaders to persuade the Palestinians to disengage their forces from the 
conflict Lebanon. 

July 11 — Damascus radio reported that Jordanian King Hussein and Saudi 
Arabian Foreign Minister Prince Saud were conferring with a dele- 
gation of Lebanese Christian leaders in Damascus on the civil war in 
Lebanon. 



56 



July 11 — The Baltimore News American reported that South Africa and 
Israel will conduct military staff talks and that Israel will supply arms 
to the South African army as the latter reequips in order to change its 
primary mission from that of dealing almost exclusively with internal 
security to meeting the threat of full-scale attacks from across its borders. 

July 12 — U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Scran ton, during debate 
on the Israeli action in Uganda, stated in the Security Council that there 
"is a well-established right to use limited force for the protection of one's 
own nationals from an imminent threat of injury or death in a situation 
where the state in whose territory they are located either is unwilling or 
unable to protect them. The right, flowing from the right of self-defense, 
is limited to such use of force as is necessary and appropriate to protect 
threatened nationals from injury." 

July 12 — It was reported that, according to Damascus sources, Syrian Presi- 
dent al-Assad had authorized the use of up to 50,000 Syrian troops, 
together with armor and air support, to restore order in Lebanon. (It was 
estimated that, currently, there were about 13,000 Syrian troops in 
Lebanon.) 

July 13 — Jordanian Prime Minister Rifai resigned and King Hussein asked 
Mudar Badran, Chief of the Royal Cabinet, to form a new government. 
(Former Ambassador to the United States, Abd al-Hamid Sharif, became 
Chief of the Royal Cabinet.) 

July 13 — Israeli Navy Commander Michael Markai said that Israel will 
double its long-distance combat fleet with six more Gabriel-carrying 
Flame missile boats, costing $15 million each. 

July 14 — At the end of 4 days of inconclusive debate in the Security Coun- 
cil, African members of the Council withdrew a resolution condemning 
the Israeli rescue mission at Entebbe Airport as a "flagrant violation" 
of Uganda's sovereignty, and announced they would not participate in 
voting on a concomitant Anglo-American resolution condemning the 
hijacking of airliners and calling on all governments to "prevent and 
punish such terrorist acts." 

July 14 — The Washington Post reported the State Department had con- 
cluded that Israel had used U.S.-supplied aircraft and equipment in its 
rescue mission in Uganda for "legitimate self-defense", permitted under 
the Foreign Military Sales Act. 

July 14 — In Beirut, Libyan Prime Minister Talloud submitted a Syrian 
proposal to the Palestinian forces for a step-by-step arrangement starting 
with a limited Syrian withdrawal and leading eventually to a cease-fire. 

July 15 — Syrian forces captured Baalbak, the last Palestinian/Muslim 
Leftist Alliance stronghold in eastern Lebanon, as the PLO accused the 
Damascus government of having sent 1,000 fresh troops into Lebanon. 

July 18 — The Soviet aircraft carrier Kiev entered the Mediterranean for the 
first time to reinforce the Soviet fleet. (It was reported that U.S. officials 
had indicated the Soviet Union had more than 70 warships in the 
Mediterranean.) 

July 18 — A joint communique, issued at the conclusion of 3 days of talks 
between Saudi Arabian King Khalid, Egyptian President al-Sadat, and 
Sudanese President Nimeiri at Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, announced agree- 



57 



ment "to promote and intensify cooperation" between the three countries, 
condemnation of the continuation of fighting in Lebanon, and a declara- 
tion of support — in the wake of the July 2 abortive coup in Khartoum — 
for the "heroic Sudanese people in their confrontation with conspiracies, 
aggression and sedition." 

July 18 — Israeli devalued its pound by a further 2 percent — the fourteenth 
in a series of devaluations since November 1974. (The Israeli Govern- 
ment also decided to link its pound to the U.S. dollar, the pound sterling, 
the West German mark, the French franc, and the Dutch guilder, in a 
move designed to improve Israeli exports; previously, it had been tied 
only to the U.S. dollar.) 

July 18 — According to two studies prepared by the State Department's Office 
of the Inspector General of Foreign Assistance and released by Repre- 
sentative Aspin, it was necessary that "major improvements in contact 
management" be made or "Iran will not develop the desired defense capa- 
bilities and our relations could suffer unavoidable strain." (Aspin 
charged that "the management of some contracts appears to be absolute 
anarchy.") 

July 18 — Libyan Minister of State Muhammad az-Zawi announced in 
Kuwait that his government had dispatched French-built Mirage jet air- 
craft to Uganda to replace Soviet-supplied MIG jets that had been 
destroyed by Israeli commandos at Entebbe. 

July 18 — The Middle East News Agency (MENA) reported that finance 
ministers from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab 
Emirates had initialed an agreement in Cairo establishing a $2 billion 
fund to help finance development in Egypt. 

July 19 — In an interview published in Newsweek, Jordanian King Hussain 
said that the PLO had weakened its argument, because of its role in the 
Lebanese civil war, that Jews, Muslims, and Christians could live in 
harmony side by side in a future greater Palestine ; and that it can "now 
be seen that Arabs themselves, citizens of the same country, not only can- 
not coexist but collide day and night." (Hussain also stated that the 
Israelis were "dangerously complacent" £ind, unless the momentum 
toward peace was resumed, there would be "a rapid deterioration toward 
another explosion.") 

July 19 — Following talks in London between Oman Sultan Qabus and the 
British Government, it was announced that the Royal Air Force will 
withdraw from its staging airfield on Masirah Island, off the coast of 
Oman, in March 1977, and will hand over operations of the airfield at 
Salalah, Dhofar Province, to the Omani authorities. (British pilots and 
other staff seconded to the Sultan's forces will not be affected by the 
agreement.) 

July 19 — ^The State Department announced that negotiations had been com- 
pleted on a draft agreement for the United States to sell nuclear power 
reactors to Israel and Egypt. 

July 20 — Syrian President al- Assad, in a broadcast speech, rejected Pales- 
tinian demands that he withdraw Syrian forces from Lebanon, stating 
that the Palestinians had "no right, legal or otherwise, to demand the 
withdrawal of Syrian forres from Lebanon," and that they were "fight- 
ing a battle that has nothing to do with their cause." (Al-Assad said 



58 



that Syrian troops would leave only at the request of Lebanese President 
Franjleh or other legitimate officials.) i 

July 20 — The Paris newspaper Le Monde reported that Soviet Communist 
Party Chairman Brezhnev had accused Syria of prolonging the civil t 
war in Lebanon, and had requested the Damascus government to with- 
draw its forces. 

July 20 — A joint communique issued in Cairo announced the conclusion of 
a 25-year defense pact between Egypt and the Sudan, signed by the 
leaders of the two countries on July 15. 

July 21 — A partial truce between Christian and Palestinian forces in 
Lebanon was shattered by a mortar attack on an Arab League peace- ] 
keeping unit and by renewed fighting around the Palestinian refugee ; 
camp of Tal Zaatar. | 

July 21 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin, referring to reports that Israel j 

apparently was supplying arms to Christians in Lebanon, denied that | 

his country w^as involved in the civil war and declared it would not j 

intervene unless its security was threatened. (State Department spokes- | 

man Robert Funseth, responding to questions concerning reports of i 

Lebanese Maronite forces receiving covert arms supplies from Israel, ■ 
stated that the United States "has not approved directly or indirectly 

the transfer of arms by any country to Lebanon." ) | 

July 22 — Lebanese Druze leader Jumblatt announced the establishment of ! 
a "central political council" — a civil administration to govern those ] 
sections of Lebanon controlled by the Muslim Leftist Alliance. (The 
move was seen as a step toward partition of Lebanon. ) 

July 22 — A Palestinian delegation met with Syrian Foreign Minister i 
Khaddam and senior members of the Ba'ath Party in Damascus to 
discuss ways of resolving differences stemming from Syrian interven- 
tion in the Lebanese civil war. 

July 22 — U.S. Ambassador to Egypt Hermann Eilts and Egyptian Minister ; 

of Economic Cooperation Zaki Shafii signed a loan agreement in Cairo ; 

for importation of American agricultural and industrial equipment — i 

the first of seven loan agreements to total $435 million scheduled to be | 

signed in the near future. | 

July 22 — The Scripps-Howard newspaper chain, quoting "senior U.S. ! 

diplomats," reported that Al Fatah second-in-command Salah Khalaf i 

(also known as Abu lyad) had directed the June 16 murder of U.S. I 

Ambassador Meloy, his aide and driver, in order to provoke the United ! 

States into intervening in Lebanon with the aim of uniting the various j 

warring factions. I 

July 23 — The Washington Star reported that Ashland Oil, New England | 
Petroleum, General Dynamics, and Litton Industries were negotiating a ■ 
$13 billion arrangement whereby Iran would be offered a limited share 
of ownership in the American companies in return for use of Iranian ; 
oil to finance the purchase of U.S. jet fighters and warships. (An Ash- 
land Oil Co. spokesman subsequently denied that part-ownership was i 
being considered.) i 

July 25 — Newsweek reported the leaders of Saudi Arabia, Egypt and the 
Sudan had agreed at their Jiddah summit meeting that Libyan leader ; 
Qaddafi must be ousted by whatever means were necessary. i 



59 



July 26 — In an interview following the conclusion of hearings on the 
Middle East by the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Subcom- 
mittee on Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Senator McGovern 
stated that the United States should consider "international intervention 
to restore order" in Lebanon, either through the creation of a United 
Nations force or alongside France, Britain, and possibly the Soviet 
Union. 

July 26 — It was reported that oil and shipping companies operating in the 
Persian Gulf had received a detailed alert from the State Department 
warning against the possible hijacking of an oil tanker in the region. 

July 27 — A U.S. Navy landing craft evacuated 308 persons, including 156 
Americans, from Beirut in an apparent final "organized departure" from 
Lebanon. (Special U.S. Ambassador Seelye and other embassy per- 
sonnel boarded the craft, leaving a skeleton staff of 15, including 12 
U.S. Marines, in the capital; security for the operation was provided by 
Palestinian and Muslim Leftist Alliance units. ) 

July 27 — At the conclusion of 5 days of talks between Syrian and Pales- 
tinian leaders, a draft cease-fire agreement was dispatched for study 
by the various factions in the Lebanese civil war. (The agreement re- 
portedly would require Palestinian forces to abide by the 1969 Cairo 
pact under which they promised not to interfere in the internal affairs 
of Lebanon in return for being permitted to maintain camps in that 
country; and it would preclude partition of Lebanon.) 

August 1 — Damascus radio reported the resignation of Syrian Prime Min- 
ister Mahmoud al-Ayoubi and the succession to that post of Maj. Gen. 
Abdul Rahman Khlefawi, who had served as Premier from 1971 to 1972. 

August 1 — Arab demonstrators clashed with Israeli troops in Nablus in the 
occupied West Bank. (The demonstration and a previous commercial 
strike had been called to protest a newly imposed value-added tax by 
Israel that would raise prices of goods by 5 percent, 

August 2 — A report on U.S. military sales to Iran, published by the Senate 
Subcommittee on Foreign Assistance of the Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions, indicated that the 1972 decision by President Nixon "to sell Iran 
the F-14 and/or the F-15 aircraft and, in general, to let Iran buy any- 
thing it wanted effectively exempted Iran from arms sales review proc- 
esses in the State and Defense Departments." (Responding to the report, 
the State Department denied that weapons systems were being sold to 
Iran without any review by U.S. officials.) 

August 2 — Israeli troops blocked an attempt by right-wing Jews, led by 
American Rabbi Meir Kahane) founder of the Jewish Defense League), 
to set up an unauthorized settlement near Jericho in the occupied West 
Bank. 

August 3 — Egyptian President al-Sadat said in a speech in Alexandria that 
Israel and Syria had conducted secret discussions in Geneva and had 
reached agreement giving the Damascus government a free hand in 
Lebanon. (Al Sadat stated that it had become clear "the Syrians are 
liquidating the Palestinians in a more cruel manner than the Israelis 
did," and that Egypt was prepared to "liberate" Israeli-held territories 
if peaceful negotiations failed.) 



60 

August 4 — The commander of the Arab League peacekeeping force in 1 
Lebanon, Maj. Gen. Hassan Ghunaim, announced that all warring fac- 
tions in the Lebanese civil war had signed a new cease-fire agreement 
to come into effect on August 5. 

August 4 — Israeli radio reported that talks between Israeli ofl5cials and 
breakaway units of the Lebanese army led by Lt. Ahmad Khatib had 
been held at the Rosh Haniqra checkpoint on the Israeli-Lebanese 
border in an effort to curb guerrilla attacks against Israel from 
southern Lebanon. 

August 5 — The United States completed the signing of agreements to sell 
nuclear reactors to Israel and Egypt. (The projected delivery of the 
reactors was estimated for the mid-1980's.) 

August 5 — ^The Egyptian Middle East News Agency (MENA) reported 
that large numbers of tanks, armored vehicles, and artillery pieces were 
being amassed by the Soviet Union in Libya; that Mig-25 jet aircraft 
were being flown on reconnaissance missions by Soviet pilots from air- 
fields near Tripoli; and that the Soviet Mediterranean fleet was using 
Libyan port facilities. 

August 7 — In Iran, Secretary Kissinger defended the U.S. arms sales pro- 
gram to that country, stating that the transactions were "not a favor to 
Iran," but "in the interest of the United States" in supplying arms to an 
ally against "potential threats" from its neighbors. 

August 8 — Secretary Kissinger and Iranian Economic Affairs Minister 
Hushang Ansari signed an economic agreement that is expected to lead 
to $40 billion in trade between the United States and Iran during the 
1975-80 period. (The figure did not include U.S. arms sales to Iran 
which were expected to be between $2 and $3 billion per year.) 

August 11 — Four persons were killed, including staff aide to Senator Javits, 
Harold Rosenthal, and more than 30 injured when Palestinian terrorists 
shot up and bombed an Istanbul international airport building after 
having failed to hij ack an Israeli El Al airliner. 

August 11 — The Defense Department notified Congress that it intends to 
sell to Iran almost $315 million of artillery ammunition and support 
items for previously purchased F-5 jet aircraft. 

August 12 — After 54 days of seige, Lebanese Christian forces finally cap- 
tured the fortified Palestinian Tal Zaatar refugee camp near Beirut. 

August 13 — The Syrian Ministry of the Interior annouced in Damascus 
that "in view of current security circumstances in Lebanon, and to 
safeguard the convenience of Lebanese and Syrian citizens," the Gov- 
ernment had issued instructions regulating travel and movement be- 
tween the two countries — thus restricting for the first time since the 
Lebanese civil war began travel across the Syrian border. 

August 13 — The Egyptian newspaper Al Ahram reported that Egypt had 
moved troops, armor, and weapons westward to protect its border with 
Libya and to prevent infiltration by saboteurs. 

August 14 — At least seven persons were killed and several injured in Alex- 
andria when a bomb exploded in a train being boarded by farmers and 
workers bound for Aswan. 



61 



August 14 — Arab Foreign Ministers attending the fifth nonalined summit 
conference in Sri Lanka rejected a PLO proposal calling for the immedi- 
ate expulsion of Israel from the United Nations. 

August 15 — The Libyan Government requested an urgent session of the 
Arab League Council to discuss tensions along the Libyan-Egyptian 
border. 

August 15 — Saudi Arabian Minister of Planning Hisham Nazir said in 
Washington that Saudi foreign assistance, currently $4 billion per year, 
had reached its peak and would be decreased in the future. 

August 15 — Israeli Minister of Justice Haim Zadok said in Washington 
that capital punishment for terrorists "would not serve Israel's best 
interests," and stressed that decisions regarding the punishment of 
terrorists "must be guided by cool judgment rather than by emotional 
reaction." 

August 17 — The State Department acknowledged that the Soviet Union had 
complained to the administration over the interception by Israeli naval 
patrols of supplies bound for Palestinian and leftist forces in Lebanon. 
(In Tel Aviv, Israeli Defense Minister Peres said that six ships had 
been halted off the Lebanese coast but stated "there is no blockade" of 
Lebanon by Israel.) 

August 18 — Israeli radio announced that Israel had protested to the U.N. 
peacekeeping force, accusing Egypt of having moved 16 to 18 battalions 
to the east bank of the Suez Canal instead of the 8 permitted by the 
Sinai interim agreement of September 1975. (Israeli defense officials 
said that the Egyptians also had placed missile batteries and helicopters 
in restricted areas, but these had been withdrawn in July following 
Israeli complaints.) 

August 18 — The Baltimore Sun reported that Israeli arms exports were 
expected to reach more than $300 million in 1976, with sales to "gen- 
erally non-alined" countries, including Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, 
Nicaragua, Singapore, Austria, and South Africa. 

August 19 — Uganda radio announced that President Amin had cabled 
Israeli Prime Minister Rabin requesting compensation for the loss of 
lives and property during the July 4 rescue of hostages at Entebbe Air- 
port, as well as for the "hospitality for the hostages" given by Uganda. 

August 21 — Finance Ministers of Egypt and four Arab oil-producing coun- 
tries — Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates — 
signed an agreement establishing a $2 billion fund to help finance 
development in Egypt. 

August 22 — The State Department announced that Robert Houghton and 
David Mack, both Foreign Service officers, had been sent to Lebanon 
to confer with Lebanese officials in Christian-controlled areas. (The 
move was believed to indicate growing concern in Washington for a 
trend toward partition of Lebanon between Christians and Muslims.) 

August 22 — Israeli Defense Minister Peres said in an interview that tensions 
between Israel and Syria had relaxed to such a degree that Israel may 
soon be able to "open the gates a little bit" to allow members of families 
separated by the cease-fire line to visit each other. (Peres said that U.N. 
officials were exploring the matter with the Syrian authorities, and that 
Israel was awaiting an announcement. ) 

81-813 O - 77 - 5 



62 



August 23 — Egyptian paratroopers at Luxor Airport dressed as airport em- 
ployees rescued 101 passengers and crew held hostage aboard Egyptian 
airliner that had been hijacked shortly after takeoff from Cairo. (The 
Egyptian Government subsequently announced that the hijacking 
op>eration had been planned by Libya.) 

August 23 — The Israeli newspaper Jerusalem Post criticized the Soviet 
policy of allowing dissidents to leave Russia with visas only to Israel, 
thus enabling Moscow to label all Soviet opposition movements as Jew- 
ish or Zionist-tainted. (The newspaper urged that "non-Jews be allowed 
to emigrate, but without forcing them to use the Israeli channel.") 

August 24 — The Christian Science Monitor reported that the PLO, follow- 
ing heavy military and propaganda losses in recent weeks, hcis been tak- 
ing several measures to restore its strength, including : ( 1 ) conscription 
of Palestinians between the ages of 18 to 30 in Lebanon; (2) a ban on 
all Palestinians from leaving the country; (3) a general call for Pales- 
tinians abroad to return to Lebanon to fight; (4) reinforcement of 
precarious Palestinian mountain positions that are claimed by 
Christian forces; and (5) a campaign to pressure supporters, such as 
Algeria and the Soviet Union, into declaring their backing for the PLO 
and the Muslim Leftist Alliance in the Lebanese conflict. 

August 25 — Egyptian President al-Sadat accepted the unanimous nomina- 
tion by the Egyptian People's Assembly for a second 6-year term of 
office. (Al-Sadat will be the sole candidate in a yes-or-no plebiscite on 
September 16.) 

August 25 — Former Israeli Defense Minister Dayan said in Tel Aviv that 
the United States should reduce military aid to Israel, deescalate the 
Middle East arms race, and work for a new Arab-Israeli agreement to end 
the formal state of war; but he added that Israel "must have a nuclear 
option" to offset the numerical superiority of the Arab States and their 
financial capability to buy weapons. (Israeli Prime Minister Rabin 
subsequently described Dayan's statement as being "not correct, 
unfortunate and better left unsaid.") 

August 26 — Following a closed session of the Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee, Secretary Kissinger told reporters that he and those Sena- 
tors opposed to or critical of administration proposals to sell sophisti- 
cated weaponry to Saudi Arabia would meet the following day "and 
see if we can reach a solution" before the administration gave formal 
announcement of the proposed sale. 

August 26 — Lebanese President Franjieh called for the proposed Arab 
League summit conference on the Lebanese civil war to be held in 
Lebanon. 

August 26 — Israeli Defense Minister Peres stated that his government was 
ready for a new interim agreement with Syria, and offered to cooperate 
with Egypt in development projects. 

August 26 — The Egyptian newspaper Al Ahram reported that France was 
producing a modified version of its Crotale surface-to-air missile for 
eventual production in Egypt. 

August 27 — Secretary Kissinger informed the Senate Subcommittee on 
Foreign Assistance of the Committee on Foreign Affairs that the United 
States had agreed to sell Iran 160 General Dynamics Corp. F-16 jet 



63 



fighters at a cost of about $3.4 billion. (Kissinger said that delivery 
would not begin until 1979, with an initial 10 1 : ainers, and the remain- 
ing 150 aircraft would be delivered over the si^bsequent 4 years.) 

August 27 — An Iranian Government spokesman announced that Iran and 
Occidental Petroleum Corp. had canceled a $125 million plan to develop 
Caspian Sea oil, and to process and market other Iranian oil. 

August 28 — A terrorist group ambushed and killed three American 
employees of a U.S. defense firm in a Tehran suburb. 

August 28 — Arab League mediator Hassan Sabri al-Kholi met with Leba- 
nese Christian, Muslim Leftist Alliance, and Palestinian leaders in an 
effort to promote the League's new peace plan for ending the civil war. 

August 28 — The Algerian news agency APS reported the opening of the 
third congress of the Polisario Front under its acting secretary general, 
Mahfud Larussi, in Western Sahara with some 40 foreign delegations 
attending. 

August 29 — The Amir of Kuwait, Shaikh Sabah Salim al-Sabah, suspended 
his country's constitution and dissolved the national assembly, and 
strengthened the Government's authority to suspend newspapers, de- 
claring that Kuwait was at a "dead end," and that "deteriorating con- 
ditions" prompted his actions. (The Washington Post reported the 
occurrence of unrest among the Palestinian population, including criti- 
cism of the Kuwaiti Government and several bombing incidents.) 

August 29 — Pravda published an article calling on Syria to withdraw its 
forces from Lebanon and to cooperate with its "natural allies in the 
anti-imperialist struggle — the Palestinian resistance movement and the 
national patriotic forces of Lebanon" in order to "facilitate the 
reconstruction and strengthening of the front of Arab forces." 

August 29 — Egypt moved reinforcements along its border with Libya and 
canceled Ramadan leaves for some of its military units. 

August 29 — Assessing the 1 -year-old Sinai interim agreement between 
Israel and Egypt, Israeli Prime Minister Rabin stated that "the agree- 
ment stands up when judged" against Israel's standards for peace and 
security; and Foreign Minister Allon noted that while Egypt had hon- 
ored its agreement to limit the numbers of troops and missiles in the 
Sinai, it had generally ignored its pledge to lessen {>olitical attacks on 
Israel, and that there had been no further progress toward peace since 
the pact was signed in September 1975. (Allon subsequently said in a 
broadcast that the Lebanese civil war was blocking "every hope and 
every possibility for any Arab readiness" to negotiate new peace moves.) 

August 29 — Egypt announced it was seeking the extradition from Jordan 
and Kuwait of two Palestinians involved in planning the hijacking of an 
Egyptiaui airliner on August 23. 

August 30 — An editorial appearing in the Syrian newspaper Al Thawra 
written by a former maj or in the Lebanese army called for the formation 
of a federal relationship betv/een Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and the 
Palestinians. 

August 30 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin declared that the Soviet Union 
must scale down its support of "extremist" Arab demands and adopt 
a more moderate tone before Israel would agree to Soviet participation 
in a Geneva conference on the Middle East. 



64 



August 30 — As a Soviet delegation left Moscow to attend Libya's Revolu- 
tion Day celebration, Pravda accused Egypt of making threats against 
Libyan leader Qaddafi, and declared that the "development of events 
around Libya attracts close attention throughout the world since there 
emerges the danger of a new military conflict breaking out in the area 
of the Middle East." 

August 31 — Lebanese President-elect Sarkis held discussions for the first 
time with Syrian President al-Assad in Damascus. 

August 31 — Arab League Secretary General Mahmud Riad said in Cairo 
that all factions in the Lebanese civil war had agreed to the latest League 
peace proposals, but that he doubted if the plan will be effective because 
of the lack of trust on all sides. 

September 1 — U.S. foreign service officers, Houghton and Mack, arrived 
in Jounieh, Lebanon, for further talks with Christian leaders, including 
President Franjieh, President-elect Sarkis, militia chief Pierre Gemayel, 
and Interior Minister Chamoun. 

September 1 — The Defense Department informed Congress it planned to 
sell almost $6 billion in weapons to ten countries including 160 F-16 
advanced jet fighter aircraft for Iran, and air-to-air and air-to-ground 
missiles for Saudi Arabia. 

September 2 — ^The Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, in an official 
statement, said that the proposed sale of 110 F-5E aircraft, 850 Side- 
winder air-to-air missiles, and 650 Maverick air-to-ground missiles 
would not "be likely to lead to an arms race" in the Middle East. 

September 6 — The Arab League voted unanimously to accept the PLO as its 
twenty-first member. 

September 7 — ^The State Department reported that Israeli aircraft fired 
on U.S. marker buoys near an oil rig in the Gulf of Suez the previous 
day in what was described as the latest development in a dispute be- 
tween Israel and the United States over oil drilling rights in the gulf. 

September 7 — The House Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations 
of the Committee on Commerce charged in its report that the Department 
of Commerce was guilty of laxness in monitoring the Arab boycott of 
Israel and recommended stricter enforcement of the Export Administra- 
tion Act, which requires American firms to report boycott-related re- 
quests from Arab governments. (Commerce Secretary Richardson 
responded that the situation described in the report no longer existed.) 

September 8 — Pravda criticized the entry of Syrian troops into the 
Lebanese civil war, but also, and for the first time, criticized leftists 
elements which rejected peace proposals, stating that "all sides, in the 
interests of peace, must now exert efforts to remove differences through 
a dilog," and that this "must be done by the Lebanese themselves 
without any outside pressure." 

September 9 — President Ford, speaking before a B'nai B'rith convention 
in Washington, declared that there would be "no imposed solutions" 
in the Middle East, stating he planned to seek further progress in peace 
negotiations but only with the "closest constant consultation with 
Israel." (Ford also pledged he would continue to press the Soviet Gov- 
ernment to permit more Jewish emigration.) 



65 



September 10— It was reported that Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi 
had invited prominent Lebanese political and religious leaders to Cairo 
for talks on ways of ending the 17-month civil war in Lebanon. 

September 13 — The Beirut newspaper As Safir, quoting "high-level Arab 
diplomatic sources," reported that Syria had informed the PLO that 
the Lebanese civil war must end by September 23 — the date on which 
Lebanese President-elect Sarkis was due to take ofiBce — or "Syria will 
seek a military solution." 

September 14 — Egyptian President al-Sadat conferred with Lebanese 
Prime Minister Karami on prospects of ending the civil war in Lebanon. 
(In an interview with the Cairo newspaper Al Akhbar, Karami said only 
speedy collective Arab action could settle the Lebanese conflict.) 

September 14 — The Arab League "Secretariat invited Arab heads of state 
to meet in Cairo on October 18-20 to seek ways of ending the fighting 
in Lebanon and of settling inter- Arab diff"erences. 

September 15 — The Defense Department announced that the U.S. Air 
Force was investigating the financial records of the U.S. military mis- 
sion in Iran, and the activities of Maj. Gen. Kenneth P. Miles, because 
of "possible procurement irregularities." 

September 15 — Lebanese President Franjieh took key posts in the coun- 
try's six-man cabinet away from Muslim Prime Minister Karami and 
shifted them to Camille Chamoun, a Christian and a former president. 
(Karami was in Cairo at the time the changes were announced with 
other Lebanese leaders meeting with Egyptian President al-Sadat.) 

September 16 — U.N. Secretary General Waldheim said that negotiations 
between Israel and the Arab states "must be resumed as soon as possi- 
ble," and that he intended to resume consultations with leaders of both 
sides when they come to the United Nations for the next General 
Assembly session. 

September J 6— Under Secretary of State Philip Habib, appearing before 
the Senate Subcommittee on Foreign Assistance of the Committee on 
Foreign Relations, stated that if the proposed sale to Iran of 160 F-16 jet 
fighters were blocked by Congress, "serious political problems" would be 
raised in American-Iranian relations. (Habib also said that the Adminis- 
tration agreed with the Shah of Iran's recent contention that if his 
country entered a war, Americans in Iran "would be completely free not 
to become involved.") 

September 17 — ^Lebanese President-elect Sarkis, PLO Chairman Arafat, 
and Syian air force commander Major General Jamil met to discuss a 
three-point truce agreement that called f or : ( 1 ) a cease-fire in all parts 
of Lebanon to be policed by the Arab League peacekeeping force; (2) 
the gradual withdrawal of Syrian forces from Lebanon; and (3) imple- 
mentation of the 1969 Cairo agreement limiting the activities of 
Palestinians resident in Lebanon. 

September 19 — Lebanese President Franjieh said that the PLO must be 
dissolved if there was to be an end to the Lebanese civil war and pro- 
posed the creation of a pan-Arab council to take over political leadership 
of the Palestinian guerrilla movement. 



66 

September 20 — State Department spokesman Frederick Brown said that 
allegations made by columnist Jack Anderson that the PLO permanent ! 
observer at the United Nations had been conducting clandestine fund- 
raising activities in the United States were under investigation. ' 

September 21 — In an article entitled, "Israel: Defensible Borders," in the 
September issue of Foreign Affairs, Israeli Foreign Minister Allon pro- ; 
posed: (1) Israeli evacuation of most of the West Bank and its demili- | 
tarization, except for forces stationed along the Jordan River; (2) use j 
of the Gaza strip, demilitarized, as a port for the West Bank, with access | 
along a prescribed route; (3) continued Israeli strategic control of the i 
Golan Heights; (4) substantial Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai except | 
for Sharm al-Shaikh; and (5) continued Israeli control of Jerusalem, j 

September 23 — ^The Israeli Knesset criticized the proposed sale of $7.5 j 
billion in arms to Saudi Arabia, stating that the deal would "endanger 
Israeli's security," and urging the U.S. Congress to block it. 

September 23 — Elias Sarkis was sworn in as President of Lebanon in a 
ceremony at the Syrian-occupied town of Chtaura. 

September 24 — The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, by a 8 to 6 
vote, disapproved the sale of 650 Maverick air-to-ground missiles to 
Saudi Arabia. 

September 26 — Four pro-Palestinian terrorists seized about 90 hostages 
in a Damascus hotel until Syrian troops stormed the building, killing 
the group's leader and capturing the other three. (Four hostages also 
were reported to have been kill. The captured terrorists were publicly 
hanged the following day.) 

September 27 — The State Department and the Saudi Arabian Information 
Office denied the validity of a report issued on September 26 by the 
Egyptian Middle East News Agency that Saudi Arabian Foreign Min- 
ister Prince Fahd had delivered a warning of an oil embargo to Assistant | 
Treasury Secretary Gerald Parsky if Congress enacted legislation that 
would weaken the Arab boycott of Israel. 

September 28 — Israeli Defense Minister Peres said that Israel was pro- 
ducing a small missile that could be operated by one person. j 

September 28 — By a 56-24 vote, the Senate gave final congressional I 
approval to a $5.1 billion foreign aid appropriations bill for fiscal ! 
1977 that included $1 billion in foreign military credit sales and 
$735 million in security supporting assistance for Israel: $700 million 
for Egypt; $70 million for Jordan; and $80 million for Syria. (In 
addition, Israel was authorized $12 million for assistance to refugees 
going to Israel from East Europe and the Soviet Union.) 

September 28 — Syrian forces, supported by Lebanese Christian militia- j 
men, launched a major attack against Palestinian positions in the | 
Lebanese central mountains. j 

September 28 — Secretary Kissinger, after testifying before the Senate Com- ' 

mittee on Foreign Relations which had met to reconsider its September ' 

24 disapproval of Maverick missile sales to Saudi Arabia, informed j 

reporters that refusal to sell the missiles would jeopardize U.S.-Saudi j 

relations, stating that Saudi Arabia had been "a good friend of the ' 
United States," had played a stabilizing role in the Middle East, and 

had been helpful in the search for peace in that region. i 



67 



September 28 — Arabs in Israel, the West Bank and Gaza went on strike to 
protest a controversial report that recommended reducing the Arab 
population in Israel. 

September 28 — In a report released by Senate Armed Services Committee 
member Senator Culver, Secretary Kissinger stated he believed it was 
"politically infeasible" to persuade the international community to agree 
to universal restrictions on arms exports, and that there was "no uni- 
versal, common political interest among the large producers. . . . One 
is led to the conclusion that regional or subregional approaches to the 
control of arms transfers are likely to be more promising that the de- 
velopment of broad controls on a world-wide basis." 

September 29 — Senator Tower announced that he would object to the 
formal appointment of Senate conferees to work out compromise legis- 
lation on the Export Administration Act which would strengthen current 
measures to counter the Arab boycott of firms dealing with Israel. 

September 29 — Israel devalued its pound by a further 1.8 percent — the 
fifteenth in a series of devaluations since November 1974. 

September 29 — Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi called for the holding of 
a limited Arab summit conference, consisting of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, 
the PLO, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait, within 48 hours to deal with the 
new fighting in Lebanon. 

September 29 — Syrian forces continued their Lebanese offensive and a 
Palestinian military spokesman conceded that the towns of Aintoura and 
Mtein, in the central mountains, had fallen to Syrian troops and tanks. 

September 30 — In a major address before the U.N. General Assembly, 
Secretary Kissinger called for an early resumption of the Geneva Con- 
ference on the Middle East, stating that the "step-by-step negotiations of 
the past 3 years have now brought us to a point where comprehensive 
solutions seem possible." 

September 30 — In an interview published in the Israeli newspaper Yedioth 
Ahronoth, President Ford said he intended to visit the Middle East 
"right after the election" in order to do "some serious talking about a 
broader settlement — and that means peace and recognition of Israel." 

October 1 — Vladimir Salkan, the Soviet Charge d' Affaires in Beirut, an- 
nounced that the Soviet Union would launch a diplomatic effort to end 
the fighting in Lebanon. The announcement appeared to be a criticism 
of the Syrian military intervention in Lebanon, since the Soviet plan 
reportedly called for the withdrawal of the Syrian troops and their 
replacement by French and Egyptian troops. 

October 3 — Lebanese leader Kamal Jumblatt met with French officials in 
Paris in an attempt to arrange a cease-fire. 

October 3 — The Israeli army imposed a curfew on the occupied West Bank 
town of Hebron following several incidents in which Jewish and Muslim 
religious objects were desecrated. 

October 5 — French President Valery Giscard d'Estaing arrived in Tehran 
for a 4-day visit, during which France and Iran signed agreements for 
the construction of two nuclear powerplants, a housing project, high- 
ways, and other development programs. 



68 



October 7 — In an address to the U.N. General Assembly, Israeli Foreign 
Minister Yigal AUon stated that Israel was ready to participate in a 
Geneva peace conference. The day before, Egyptian President Anwar 
al-Sadat stated that 1977 would be the year for "an overall settlement." 

October 8 — Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin suggested that Defense 
Minister Shimon Peres should resign, as the power struggle between 
the two Israeli leaders continued. 

October 9 — The United States informed Israel that "fuel air explosive" de- 
vices and an infrared detection system sought by Israel would be sup- 
plied. The State Department later said that the transfer of the contro- 
versial weapons would be subject to congressional approval when the 
95th Congress convenes in January 1977. 

October 11 — The Arab League announced a new cease-fire in the Lebanese 
civil war, but within 24 hours, fighting broke out near the port city of 
Sidon. 

October 11 — Three men attacked the Syrian Embassy in Rome, wounded 
one consular ofl&cial and held two others hostage for an hour before sur- 
rending to the Italian police. In Islamabad, Pakistan, three men at- 
tacked the Syrian Embassy with hand grenades but were rebuffed by 
police. 

October 17 — PLO Chairman Arafat, Syrian President Assad, Egyptian 
President al-Sadat, Saudi King Khalid, Kuwaiti Crown Prince Sabah 
al-Salam, and Lebanese President Sarkis signed an agreement in Riyadh, 
Saudi Arabia, calling for an end to the Lebanese war and the emplace- 
ment of a 30,000 man Arab League force to monitor the peace. 

October 18 — When asked by an interviewer if Israel was a blessing or a 
burden in military terms. General George Brown, Chairman of the 
Joint Chiefs of Staffs, replied that Israel was a burden to the United 
States. The interview was made in April 1976, but was not released 
until October 18. 

October 18 — Asher Yadlin, the Government's nominee to be the Governor 
of the Bank of Israel, was arrested on a charge of accepting bribes, evad- 
ing taxes, and fraud in connection with mishandling the Histadrut's 
health funds. 

October 20 — Reports from Israel indicated that four prominent Israeli 
"leftists" had been meeting with representatives of the PLO to discuss 
possible peace terms. The four were Meir Pail, member of the Knesset 
and reserve army colonel, Matti Peled, Tel Aviv University lecturer and 
reserve army general, Uri Avneri, publisher and former Knesset mem- 
ber, and Yacov Arnon, former finance ministry official. 

October 20 — Palestinians charged that Israeli forces were assisting rightist- 
Christian factions in the south of Lebanon and that Israeli equipment 
and uniforms were being supplied to the anti-Palestinian forces. 

October 22 — The United Nations Security Council approved the extension 
of the UNEF peacekeeping force in the Sinai. 

October 27 — Except for sporadic sniper fire, the week-old cease-fire in 
Lebanon appeared to be holding. 

October 28 — Egyptians went to the polls to elect 346 representatives from 
among the over 1,600 candidates for seats in the national Parliament. 



69 



October 28 — Israel devalued its currency again to a level of $1 to 8.61 
Israeli pounds. 

November 1 — The leaders of the two major Lebanese Christian militias, 
Pierre Gemayal and Camille Chamoun, announced that they had agreed 
to allow an Arab peace-keeping force to patrol Christian areas follow- 
ing President Sarkis' reported decision to use force if necessary to im- 
plement the latest cease-fire arrangement which called for the Arab 
force to monitor the truce. 

November J— Egyptian Ambassador to the United Nations, Ismat Abel 
Meguid, issued a warning before the U.N. Security Council of the pos- 
sibility of "an overall liberation war" unless Israel ended its alleged 
mistreatment of Arabs in occupied territories. (The Council had met at 
Egypt's request to consider the situation in Israeli-held territories, and 
had voted 11-1, with the United States objecting, to give the PLO a 
nonvoting role in the discussion.) 

November 2 — In Lebanon, U.S. Charge d' Affaires George Lane met with 
Druze leader Jumblatt in an effort to open contact with factions involved 
in the Lebanese civil war. (Lane subsequently met with Christian leader 
Chamoun on November 5. ) 

November 2 — The Egyptian news agency MENA reported that the estimated 
30,000 Egyptian troops stationed along the Libyan border have been 
withdrawn to new locations in the Suez Canal and Sinai Peninsula areas. 

November 2 — The Syrian Government announced that Iraq had closed the 
frontier between the two countries and had stepped up military patrols 
along the borders. 

November 4 — Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi and Soviet Foreign Minis- 
ter Gromyko issued a joint communique following 2 days of talks in 
Sofia, Bulgaria, calling for an urgent resumption of the Geneva Confer- 
ence on the Middle East. (The talks were the first such Egyptian-Soviet 
discussions in a year and a half. ) 

November 5 — Syrian Foreign Minister Khaddam announced that his coun- 
try's 22,000-man army in Lebanon would be placed at the disposal of 
Lebanese President Sarkis to be used as the main contingent of the Arab 
League peace-keeping force. 

November 5 — Israeli Defense Minister Peres said that President-elect Carter 
had taken a positive stand on some aspects of the Arab-Israel con- 
flict, including the problem of the Arab boycott of Israel, but he stated 
that "we have to tell the United States that as in the past, so in the future 
we cannot give up defensible borders and that Jerusalem and its en- 
virons, now united under Israeli administration, will never be divided 
again." 

November 7 — As fighting escalated in Beirut and elsewhere in Lebanon, 
despite the 19-day old cease-fire. President Sarkis appealed to his coun- 
trymen to lay down their arms and "restore life to Lebanon," stating 
that the pan-Arab peace-keeping force would remain in the country 
"until we succeed in rebuilding our army and our internal security 
force." 

November 8 — About 70,000 Israeli workers — one-fourth of the country's 
work force — went on strike, joined in slowdowns or threatened work 
sanctions in a wave of labor unrest. 



70 



November 8 — Syrian troops, serving as the vanguard of the Arab League 
peace-keeping force in Lebanon, moved without resistance into right- 
ist and leftist areas in the central mountains and headed toward Beirut. 
(Lebanese Druze leader Jumblatt announced his support for the Arab 
force and called on his followers to assist the troops.) i 

November 9 — Lebanese Christian leaders Gemayel and Chamoun met with \ 

President Sarkis and subsequently issued a statement calling on their | 

followers to support the latest cease-fire agreement. (Christian troops and | 

militiamen, however, rejected their leaders' pleas, promising that they I 

would be "forced to open fire" if Arab peace-keeping forces attempted j 

to enter Christian-held territories.) j 

November 9 — Egyptian President al-Sadat said in a meeting in Cairo with | 
a 12-member delegation from the House Committee on the Judiciary 

that he would sign a peace agreement with Israel when the Israelis re- \ 

linquish Arab territories occupied since the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, but | 

that he would negotiate with Israel only within the context of the Geneva | 

Conference on the Middle East. ! 

November 9 — PLO Chairman Arafat announced that he had arranged a 
meeting between Egyptian President al-Sadat and Libyan leader Qaddafi 
in his efforts to reconcile differences between the two leaders. , 

November 10 — Israeli Government sources said in Tel Aviv that Israel had 
requested from the United States $2.3 billion in military and economic 
assistance for fiscal 1978 — a $500 increase over fiscal 1977. i 

November 10 — Syrian forces, acting as part of the Arab League peace- j 
keeping force, moved into Beirut without meeting resistance. ; 

November 10 — State Department spokesman Robert Funseth said that \ 

after a 2-week investigation of the diplomatic activities of the Iranian j 

Government in the United States, "we found no evidence of illegal or i 

improper activities"; and that Iranian Embassy ofi&cials had been in- ! 
formed "we do not accept any police function by foreign officials in this 

country and in order to insure that there will be no misunderstanding, ' 

we explained the American law to them." i 

November 10 — Senator Ribicoff proposed in Jerusalem that President-elect j 
Carter name Secretary Kissinger a special envoy to seek peace in the ■ 
Middle East. ! 

November 10 — The Christian Science Monitor reported that the official j 

Syrian newspaper Al Thawra and government television broadcasts had • 

expressed the fear of Syrians and other Arabs that President-elect Car- ! 

ter's administration may move with less deliberate speed toward an ; 

Arab-Israeli peace settlement after it takes office in January. i 

November 1 1 — The United States j oined other members of the U.N. Security ] 

Council in a consensus statement deploring the establishment of Israeli j 
settlements in occupied Arab territories, terming them an obstacle to 

peace, and calling upon Israel to comply strictly with the Geneva con- i 

vention governing the administration of occupied lands. j 

November 11 — Four unidentified gunmen fired on and wounded Lebanese | 
Christian leader Raymond Edde in the Muslim-held western section of i 
Beirut. i 



71 



November 11 — Egyptian President al-Sadat announced that the three wings 
of the Arab Socialist Union (ASU) would be transformed into inde- 
pendent political parties. (The ASU had been the only legal political 
party in Egypt since 1953.) 

November 11 — Thirteen U.S. Senators left Israel for Amman, Jordan, with- 
, out having obtained permission to visit the Israeli nuclear reactor in 
the Negev. (The Israeli newspaper Yedioth Ahronoth reported that 
Prime Minister Rabin had given Senator Ribicoff a verbal message for 
Egyptian President al-Sadat to be conveyed when the delegation visited 
Cairo.) 

November 13 — Addressing a 13-member Senate delegation in Cairo, Egyp- 
tian President al-Sadat urged that President-elect Carter help promote 
movement toward an overall Arab-Israeli peace settlement in 1977, stat- 
ing that the Geneva Conference on the Middle East remained the proper 
vehicle for negotiations, and that Carter, before making his decisions, 
"should seek our viewpoint just as he seeks Israel's," adding: "I am not 
asking him to take our side." 

November 14 — Syrian troops and tanks positioned themselves for a push 
into the heart of Beirut as Syrian Prime Minister Abd al-Rahman 
Khulaifawi asserted that the Arab League peacekeeping force would 
use "all means" to impose the new cease-fire agreement. 

November 14 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin said that his government was 
more than ready for peace talks with Egypt, but that Israel desired a 
peace settlement that included "defendable boundaries" and a solution 
of "the Palestinian issue in a way that will not be a seed that will arouse 
a lot of trouble and will serve as a time bomb for the future." 

November 14 — Following a meeting with Israeli Prime Minister Rabin, 
Representative Flowers, whose congressional delegation had met with 
Egyptian Prime Minister al-Sadat on November 9, stated that Israel and 
Egypt were prepared to reopen the Geneva Conference on the Middle 
East without prior conditions, but there existed some outstanding prob- 
lems of protocol, timing and language which must be resolved before 
resumption of the conference. 

November 15 — Three columns of Syrian troops and tanks, augmented by 
Saudi Arabians and Sudanese and acting as part of the Arab League 
peace-keeping force, moved into Beirut, seizing control of the entire city 
and halting fighting between Lebanese factions. 

November 15 — A report by the Special U.N. General Assembly Committee 
on Palestine, chaired by Senegalese Ambassador Medoune Fall, urged 
that Israel withdraw from occupied Arab territories by June 1977 and 
called for a phased return of the Palestinians. 

November 16 — In Beirut, Syrian peace-keeping forces took over radio and 
television stations, occupied Lebanese Government ministries and 
utility oflBces, set up 52 checkpoints around the city, and formed an 
antikidnaping squad in an effort to curb terrorism. 

November 17 — During an interview at the United Nations, PLO foreign 
affairs spokesman Faruq Khaddoumi said that the Palestinians were 
willing to accept a homeland in the West Bank and Gaza. 



72 

November 17 — Addressing a group of students in Haifa, Israeli General 

Mordechai Gur said that, from the Israeli viewpoint, Syria's peace-keep- ' 
ing effort in Lebanon had reached an "unpleasant" state, in that Syrisui 
troops now controlled all the key Lebanese routes to Israel. 

November 17 — Four terrorists belonging to an Iraqi-based Palestinian ; 

splinter group known as "Black June" held the Intercontinental Hotel ■ 

in Amman, Jordan, for 4 hours. (Seven persons — three terrorists, two I 

Jordanian commandos, and two hotel employees — were subsequently ' 
killed before the hotel was freed by Jordanian troops.) 

November 18 — Iran and the British Aircraft Corp. signed a $640 million ; 

agreement to exchange the Rapier ground-to-air missile system for crude \ 

oil. (Iranian crude would be supplied up to the amount of the missile ! 
system's purchasing price, based on prevailing oil prices at the time of 

delivery, and the United Kingdom would earn foreign exchange on the i 

oil by selling it abroad through the Shell Oil Co.) j 

November 22 — Israeli Defense Minister Peres toured the border area with | 

Lebanon, stating that Israel was "arranging its forces according to devel- i 

opments" in Lebanon, and that, Israel had not drawn a line below which ; 

it would not want Syrian forces to advance, "we have made known some ! 

points that are very sensitive and we think the Syrians understand this." | 

November 23 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin and Foreign Minister Allon, ! 

in separate appearances, warned against the presence of Syrian forces , 

near its border with Lebanon and against a resumption of Palestinian ' 

guerrilla activity in southern Lebanon. (A State Department spokesman, j 

following a conference between Secretary Kissinger and Israeli Ambas- \ 

sador to the United States Dinitz, said: "We are watching the situa- i 

tion in southern Lebanon very closely and are urging all concerned \ 

to exercise restraint.") ] 

November 23 — The United States and Israel signed three agreements, con- \ 

sisting of a $245 million loan and two grants totaling $490 million, that j 

will enable Israel to purchase industrial and agricultural commodities \ 
and related services from the United States. 

November 25 — As a conference of foreign ministers from Persian Gulf ; 
countries opened in Muscat, aimed at seeking ways to maintain the 

security of the Gulf area, the PDRY Government announced in Aden it ; 

had shot down an Iranian fighter aircraft over the eastern part of its ' 

territory. i 

November 26 — It was reported that Syrian President al- Assad had requested | 

PLO Chairman Arafat to cease using southern Lebanon for operations I 

against Israel; let Syrian forces into Palestinian camps; suppress a ! 

radical wing of the Palestinian guerrilla movement; and terminate rela- ' 

tions with the Muslim Leftist Alliance with whom the PLO fought during : 
the Lebanese civil war. 

November 28 — A Kuwaiti Government spokesman announced that the So- j 

viet Union had agreed to supply Kuwait with unspecified amounts and j 

types of arms, and quoted defense Minister Shaikh Sa'd al-Abdullah al- i 

Sabah as having informed the Kuwaiti Cabinet that the Kremlin had i 
agreed to make the deal "under the terms we have requested." 



! 



73 



November 28 — The London Sunday Times reported that Egyptian President 
al-Sadat was ready to improve his country's relations with the Soviet 
Union, but only if Moscow respected Egyptian independence. (Al-Sadat 
was reported to have sent a personal message to Soviet Communist Party 
Chairman Brezhnev offering to normalize relations.) 

November 28 — Israel repeated its warnings against the movement of Syrian 
troops into southern Lebanon and urged that a Lebanese force be estab- 
lished in the area. 

November 29 — Israeli Foreign Minister Allon stressed in a speech the value 
of the Geneva Conference as an instrument for Middle East peace-mak- 
ing in that its importance lay not only in the "unprecedented" forum for 
Arab-Israeli negotiations but also in the opportunity created for bilateral 
sessions between Israel and the participating Arab states (Egypt, Syria, 
and Jordan) . 

November 29 — Israeli Government sources in Tel Aviv were reported to 
have said that Israel, Syria and Lebanon had reached a "tentative and 
interim" understanding on the presence of Arab peace-keeping forces in 
southern Lebanon. (The following day, the Beirut Christian radio 
reported that a 1,000-man non-Syrian force would move into southern 
Lebanon to extend the Arab League's peace-keeping effort throughout 
the country. ) 

November 30 — By a 12-0 vote, with China, Libya, and Benin not participat- 
ing, the U.N. Security Council renewed the mandate of the U.N. peace- 
keeping force on the Golan Heights through May 31, 1977. 

December 1 — An unkown number of gunmen ambushed and slightly 
wounded Syrian Foreign Minister Khaddam. 

December 2 — The Fiat Automobile Co. president announced in Turin 
that Libya had bought a 10 percent interest in the company for $415 
million. 

December 3 — In an interview published in the Saudi Arabian newspaper 
Arab News, Egyptian War Minister Gamassi stated that Soviet military 
advisers "will not return to Egypt under any circumstances because their 
dismissal in 1972 was an afi&rmation of Egyptian will." 

December 5 — In an interview in Newsweek, Egyptian President al-Sadat 
declared his readiness to sign an agreement with Israel to terminate the 
state of belligerency between the two countries, stating that the pact 
"should be linked with the complete withdrawal by Israel from the Arab 
land occupied after the 1967 war," and that he would not oppose sending 
a single Arab delegation to a reconvened Geneva Conference if all other 
Arab states agreed. (Al-Sadat also advocated the creation of a Palestinian 
state on the West Bank with some ties to Jordan.) 

December 5 — The Israeli state radio announced that Prime Minister Rabin 
had informed his cabinet the United States had agreed in principle to 
sell Israel F-16 jet fighter aircraft. (Israel reportedly has been seeking 
250F-16's.) 

December 5 — The Manchester Guardian Weekly reported that following 
Saudi Arabian mediation efforts, Morocco and Algeria appeared ready 
to end their dispute over Western Sahara. 



74 



December 6 — Israeli Ambassador to the United Nations Herzog proposed 
in a resolution the immediate reconvening of the Geneva Conference on 
the Middle East, but without the participation of the PLO; Herzog con- 
tended that his government "will not sit with the PLO" at Geneva, but 
also would not "examine the credentials of members of the Arab coun- 
tries." (A separate resolution, supported by Arab countries proposed 
reconvening the conference by the end of March 1977.) 

December 8 — Lebanese President Sarkis named Salim al-Hoss as Prime 
Minister to head a new "reconstruction government" which would begin 
reestablishing security and rebuilding the country's economy. (The new 
Prime Minister subsequently announced his ministerial selections, with 
most being economists, administrators, and "technocrats.") 

December 9— The U.N. General Assembly voted 122 to 2 (with the United 
States and Israel dissenting) to reconvene the Geneva Conference on the 
Middle East by March 1977 with the participation of Palestinian 
delegates. 

December 9 — The Soviet news agency Tass reported that Libyan leader 
Qaddafi, during his first visit to Moscow, had signed a series of eco- 
nomic, shipping, and cultural agreements with the Soviet Union. 

December 11 — In an interview published in the Beirut newspaper Al- 
Bairaq, the Emir of Kuwait stated that the Kuwaiti National Assembly 
would be reinstated within 4 years. 

December 12 — In a Newsweek interview, Israeli Prime Minister Rabin 
stated the Palestinians should be represented at a reconvened Geneva 
Conference by Arab leaders from Israeli-occupied territories, and sug- 
gested that they could participate as part of a Jordanian delegation. 
(Rabin made a distinction between the need to resolve the Palestinian 
problem and the demand that Israel negotiate with the PLO.) 

December 12 — A fourth attempt in 6 months to assassinate Lebanese 
Christian leader Raymond Edde was unsuccessfully carried out by an 
unidentified gunman. 

December 13 — Israeli Defense Minister Peres said in Washington that 
because of inflationary pressures his government is requesting a $500 
million increase over the $1 billion U.S. supporting assistance for fiscal 
1978. (Peres also stated that "there is fair chance of peace" in the 
Middle East, but believed more progress could be made through step- 
by-step diplomacy than through a reconvened Geneva Conference.) 

December 13 — In a BBC interview, the Shah of Iran said that the United 
States and West Germany could "easily" absorb a 15 percent oil-price 
increase, but that such a boost would be difficult for other Western Euro- 
pean countries; and remarked that the United States had put much pres- 
sure on him to maintain current prices. 

December 14 — Arriving at Doha, Qatar, for the meeting of OPEC, Saudi 
Arabian Petroleum Minister Yamani called for a 6-month freeze on the 
price of oil, stating that the world economy "would not tolerate" a new 
increase at this time. 

December 14 — Members of the 42-man PLO Central Council, following a 
3-day summit meeting in Damascus, issued a statement declaring the 



75 



Palestinians "have a legitimate right to repatriation and the establish- 
ment of a Palestinian state on their national soil." (PLO sources were 
reported to have said that momentum has grown among moderate ele- 
ments in favor of a Palestinian state of the West Bank and Gaza rather 
than a secular state which w ould include all of Israel 

December 14 — A time bomb in a suitcase exploded in Baghdad interna- 
tional airport, collapsing the roof and killing and wounding an undeter- 
mined number of persons. 

December 15 — Following a week of unrest in the West Bank stemming 
from the imposition of a new 8-percent sales tax, Israeli authorities 
placed curfews on the towns of Nablus and Ramallah and arrested num- 
bers of suspected troublemakers, and Israeli troops fired into crowds of 
demonstrating Arab students. 

December 16 — It was announced in Doha, Qatar, that 11 of the 13 mem- 
bers of OPEC would raise oil prices by 10 percent on January 1, 1977; 
the remaining two — Saudi Arabia and the UAE — will increase prices by 
5 percent. (The split-level pricing arrangement will extend through 
June 1977.) 

December 16 — Following a meeting in Washington with Secretary Kissin- 
ger, Lebanese envoy Ghassan Tueni stated that his country w as seeking 
$3 billion in direct humanitarian aid from the United States ard other 
countries to begin reconstruction. 

December 17 — Saudia Arabian Petroleum Minister Yamani was reported 
to have said his country had split with OPEC partners on the amount of 
an oil price rise after direct consultations with President-elect Carter's 
advisers, and to have stated that he expected the West to appreciate the 
Saudi move: "This has to be shown on two different fronts — the North- 
South dialogue and an Arab-Israeli settlement." (Yamani also was 
quoted as saying that Saudi Arabia would lift all oil production ceilings.) 

December 17 — State Department spokesman Robert Funseth denied that 
the Saudi Arabian move on oil price increases would alter U.S. policy 
in the Middle East; and President-elect Carter's Secretary of State- 
designate, Cyrus Vance, told reporters in New York that while he was 
"greatly pleased" by the Saudi price restraint, the incoming administra- 
tion had made "no commitments" on other Middle East issues. 

December 19 — Egyptian President al-Sadat and Syrian President al- Assad 
opened formal talks in Cairo to discuss common strategies for negotia- 
tions toward an Arab-Israeli settlement and alternative strategies in the 
event of a breakdown or stalemate in negotiations. (Al-Sadat declared 
that "the Arab cause has reached the point of imposing itself on the 
world.") 

December 19 — Three National Religious Party (NRP) members of the 
Israeli Cabinet were dismissed, thus initiating a political crisis in which 
the ruling Labor coalition government would be unassured of votes nec- 
essary for a majority in the Knesset. 

December 19 — The Beirut magazine Monday Morning, published a state- 
ment by PLO official, Faruk Khaddumi, in which he was quoted as say- 
ing that the PLO continues to refuse to attend a reconvened Geneva 
Conference and to negotiate with Israel. 



78 



December 19 — In Beirut, Syrian troops occupied the offices of the inde- 
pendent newspaper, An Nahar, the French-language UOrient-Le Jour, 
the Communist newspaper. An Nidal, Newsweek, and United Press In- 
ternational, under the pretext that the building in which the offices were 
located would be bombed. 

December 20 — Israeli Prime Minister Rabin tendered his resignation and 
called for early elections for 1977. (Under law, new elections cannot be 
held before May, and Rabin was expected to head a caretaker govern- 
ment until that time. ) 

December 21 — Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi announced in Cairo that 
agreements concluded after 4 days of talks between President al-Sadat 
and Syrian President al-Assad included: (1) close coordination between 
Egypt and Syria in political, military, and other fields; (2) initiation of 
the mechanisms for merging the two countries; and (3) the early recon- 
vening of the Geneva Conference on the Middle East. 

December 21 — The Christian Science Monitor reported that a public 
opinion poll, conducted by the Port Institute of Tel Aviv for the news- 
paper Ha'aretz, indicated that 47.5 percent of all Israelis would favor 
peace talks with the PLO if the latter recognized the state of Israel, with 
37.4 against. 

December 21 — Fighting broke out at the Chatila refugee camp in Beirut 
between Sa'iqa and Rejection Front guerrillas, with Syrian forces join- 
ing the clashes for the first time. 

December 22 — Former Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban announced 
that he will challenge Prime Minister Rabin's leadership of the ruling 
Labor Party at the party convention in February 1977. (Former Defense 
Minister Dayan earlier had said he would support Eban's bid.) 

December 24 — The Lebanese Parliament voted unanimously to grant 
Prime Minister al-Hoss special powers to govern the country by decree 
under martial law. (The powers conferred on the government included 
the power to amend, cancel or decree new laws for 6 months. Reportedly 
this would include some forms of censorship and limitations on the 
rights of assembly.) 

December 25 — Unidentified gunmen assassinated PFLP political bureau 
member Abd al-Wahab al-Sayid and his wife in Beirut. 

December 27 — The Middle East Economic Survey reported that Saudi 
Arabia will increase its oil production to 10 million barrels a day from 
the current 8.5 million barrel ceiling. 

December 28 — Official sources on Damascus were reported to have con- 
firmed a Syrian Government decision to lift the 28-year-old restrictions 
on its estimated 4,500 Jewish citizens and restore their rights to travel, 
own property, and enter government service. 

December 28 — United Arab Emirates (UAE) units with the Arab League 
peace-keeping forces in Lebanon were reported to have begun deploy- 
ment in the southern areas of the country. 



77 



December 30 — The Washington Post published an interview with Egyptian 
President al-Sadat in which al-Sadat listed a number of conditions for 
reaching a Middle East peace settlement, including ; that any Palestinian 
state which might be created be formally linked to Jordan; that Israeli 
withdrawal from occupied territories must be swift and complete, not 
phased over an extended time frame; and that Lebanon must be a full 
participant in any Geneva Conference. 



81-813 O - 77 - 6 



i 



1 

i 

I 

i 

i 
i 

] 
] 



I 
1 



i 



UNITED STATES-WESTERN EUROPEAN RELATIONS ' 



January 5 — In Washington, Secretary of Transportation William Coleman 
held public hearings on whether the Anglo-French Concorde SST should 
be granted landing rights in the United States. 

January 7 — Belgian Prime Minister Leo Tindemans made public his re- 
port on European Union, which calls for appointment of a strong chief 
executive for the European Community (EC) and for close agreement 
among the EC countries on joint foreign and defense policy. 

January 7 — ^The Italian Government under Prime Minister Aldo Moro re- 
signed after the Socialist Party withdrew its parliamentary support, 
upon which the coalition government of Christian Democrats and Re- 
publicans had depended. 

January 7 — It was disclosed in Washington that the United States had 
significantly increased covert financial support to non-Communist po- 
litical parties in Italy. The new program reportedly involved gifts of 
$6 million, primarily for the Christian Democrats. 

January 12 — In the wake of increased sectarian violence. Prime Minister 
Wilson announced stepped-up security measures for Northern Ireland; 
Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Merlyn Rees reported to Com- 
mons the Government's rejection of the Ulster Constitutional Conven- 
tion report on returning government to Ulster. 

January 14 — In Paris, French Communist Party leader Georges Marchais 
confirmed the French CP had dropped references to the "dictatorship of 
the proletariat," a move which was interpreted as a step by the CP to 
show its independence of the Soviet Union and to gain respect in France 
as viable political alternative. 

January 18—19 — European Socialist leaders meeting in Denmark for a 2- 
day conference on political strategy split along north-south lines, with 
the northern Socialists less inclined and the southern Socialists more 
inclined to cooperate with communist parties in order to gain political 
power. 

January 19 — ^The Portuguese Government arrested former Gen. Otelo Sar- 
aiva de Carvalho and charged the popular military leader with pro- 
moting and supporting the unsuccessful leftist coup attempt in Novem- 
ber 1975. Carvalho had been reduced to his pre-revolution rank of 
major 2 days after the attempted coup. 

January 20 — The EC announced it was prepared to resume talks with Spain 
about Spanish associate status with the Common Market. 

January 21 — ^The caretaker Italian Government of Aldo Moro closed all 
foreign exchange markets in response to pressure against the lira re- 
sulting from Italy's severe economic slump and the collapse of the 
Italian Government on January 7. 



* Prepared by Stanley Sloan and Charlotte Phillips, Analysts in European Affairs. 

(79) 



80 



January 24 — In Madrid, the United States and Spain signed a new 5-ycar 
agreement to govern defense and other relations between the two coun- 
tries. The "Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation" ensures continued 
U.S. access to three air bases and one naval base on Spanish soil in re- 
turn for increased military and other assistance and a much closer de- 
fense relationship between the two countries. For the first time in the 
history of the United States-Spanish base relationship, the agreement 
is in treaty form and therefore requires the advice and consent of the 
Senate. 

January 26 — The eighth round of talks on Mutual and Balanced Force re- 
ductions opened in Vienna, Austria. 

January 27 — British Prime Minister Wilson and Iceland Prime Minister 

Hallgrimsson concluded an initial round of talks on the cold war, which 
were facilitated by the Royal Navy's withdrawal from the contested 
waters on January 20. 

January 28 — Spanish Prime Minister Carlos Arias Navarro, in a speech 
to the Cortes (Parliament), announced that in the next 2 years a bi- 
cameral Parliament would be established, the ban on political parties 
relaxed, and a new electoral law passed. Arias also promised that the 
Government would relax restrictions on freedom of assembly, speech and 
demonstration; but he warned against anarchy and a break with the 
past. 

January 29 — The Senate confirmed Anne Armstrong as U.S. Ambassador 
to the United Kingdom. 

February 3 — ^The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention reconvened 
for 1 month to attempt again to fashion an autonomous rule formula 
acceptable to the British Government. 

February 4 — France joined with other European NATO allies in a forum 
organizationally separate from NATO to discuss joint European arms 
production and procurement. 

February 4 — The French Communist Party began its 22d Party Congress, 
which was notable for policy decisions regarding the party's relation- 
ship with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and for removing the 
concept of the necessity for a dictatorship of proletariate from its 
doctrine. 

February 6 — Spain repealed key sections of the tough anti-terrorist law 
passed in August 1975. In announcing the action, Justice Minister An- 
tonio Garrigues acknowledged that "terrorism can and in fact does 
come from the extreme right as well as the extreme left." 

February 10 — The United Kingdom ordered Navy frigates back into con- 
tested fishing waters around Iceland to protect the British trawler fleet. 

February 11 — In Rome, Premier Aldo Moro formed a minority govern- 
ment composed solely of Christian Democrats. The new government, 
Italy's 33d since World War II, is regarded largely as a stop-gap solu- 
tion to Italy's political crisis. 

February 12 — The death of convicted and imprisoned IRA arsonist Frank 
Stagg, as the result of a long hunger strike, prompted anti-British out- 
bursts among Catholics in Ulster. 



81 



February 18 — France, followed by the rest of the EC countries, announced 
its recognition of the MPLA government of Angola. 

February 19 — Iceland broke diplomatic relations with the United King- 
dom over their dispute on fishing rights, the first such break between 
two NATO countries since the Atlantic Alliance was formed. 

February 19 — The United Kingdom Government's announcement of plans 
to cut $3.6 billion from public spending scheduled for 1977-1978 was 
widely interpreted as an indication of change in the view of the Laborites 
regarding some aspects of the socialist-welfare state and performance 
of the British economy. 

February 24 — In Washington, D.C., EC President Francois-Xavier Ortoli 
emphasized to President Ford that free trade is one of the EC's most 
important goals. 

February 26 — ^The leaders of the Portuguese armed forces and the five 
largest political parties announced agreement that elections for a par- 
liament would be held on April 25, 1976, and for a president of the 
republic on June 25, 1976. 

February 26 — ^The United Kingdom Government announced a participa- 
tion agreement with two U.S. firms. Gulf Oil Co. and Continental Oil 
Co., providing for an option on 51 percent of their North Sea oil output 
in 3 years and an increase to 51 percent in the United Kingdom's owner- 
ship of the oil licenses for these particular companies' fields. 

February 26 — The United States and United Kingdom signed an agree- 
ment permitting expansion of U.S. naval facilities on Diego Garcia 
IslanH. 

March 3 — ^The Senate Foreign Relations Committee opened hearings on 
the "Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation" between the United States 
and Spain. 

March 4 — ^The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention was dissolved 
after an additional month-long session could not reach a decision on 
autonomous rule satisfactory to the British Government. 

March 10 — ^A military court in Madrid sentenced nine officers to prison 
terms after their conviction on charges of sedition for their activities 
in the Military Democratic Union, a liberal underground organization 
of Spanish military officers. 

March 12 — ^The upper house of the Federal Republic of Germany's parlia- 
ment, after a week of difficult debate and last-minute diplomatic ac- 
tivity, cleared for ratification a major agreement with Poland on pen- 
sions, emigration of ethnic Germans from Poland, and financial credits 
for Poland. 

March 13—14 — European socialist leaders, meeting in Oporto, Portugal, 
promised to help Portugal solve its economic and financial problems 
through programs developed "at different levels within the framework 
of European institutions." 

March 14 — The Communist and Socialist Parties in France registered 
gains in French cantonal elections, which prompted claims that the 
united left had achieved a majority position among the French 
electorate. 



82 



March 15 — The Times of London reported that a senior NATO oflBcer had j 
concluded that Warsaw Pact forces could drive through Western de- 
fenses before Western forces could resort to tactical nuclear weapons. 
It was later reported that the study by a Belgian ofiBcer had been pre- 
pared 6 years ago as an academic project but the report nonetheless j 
enlivened the controversy in Europe about the ability of NATO to de- | 
fend against a Warsaw Pact attack. ! 

March 16 — In London, Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced his resig- 
nation, to be effective when the Labor Party elected his successor. 

March 17 — The U.S. Agriculture Department announced a $50 million line 
of credit to Portugal to finance the purchase of American commodities. 

March 18 — In response to increased pressure for liberalization, the Span- 
ish Government announced its decision to lift a ban on political 
parties — with the exception of the Communists, anarchists, and sepa- 
ratists — and said that the penal code would be revised. j 

March 18 — On a state visit to the United States, Irish Prime Minister Liam 
Cosgrave addressed a joint session of Congress and met with President 
Ford. The President agreed to intensify U.S. efforts to halt the flow of 
illegal arms from the United States to Ireland and Northern Ireland, 
and he appealed to Americans not to contribute to illegal organizations < 
in Ireland which purchase weapons and explosives for the IRA. 

March 24 — In Rome, Benigno Zaccagnini was re-elected leader of the rul- 
ing Christian Democratic party following a divisive battle with the 
party's right wing which left the Christian Democrats badly split at the 
end of their party congress. 

March 24 — ^The U.S. Army announced a decision to purchase $30 million [ 
of light machine guns from a Belgian manufacturer. i 

April 2 — The European Community's nine political leaders ended a 2-day j 
summit in Luxembourg without achieving any progress in monetary or 

economic matters, or in the institutional sphere, on the question of the ; 

distribution of seats in the proposed future European Parliament, to be I 

elected by direct universal suffrage. ! 

April 4 — West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt's Social Democratic 
Party suffered a defeat in a state election held in Baden-Wurttemberg. : 
The Christian Democrats won 56.7 percent of the vote to the Social 
Democrats' 33.3 percent. 

April 5 — Britain's Foreign Secretary James Callaghan was elected new 
leader of the Labour Party, to succeed retiring Prime Minister Harold 
Wilson. : 

April 6 — British Prime Minister Callaghan announced the 1976-77 budget , 

designed to provide new incentives for British business. The budget in- ! 

eluded tax concessions intended to encourage British trade unions to ; 

agree to a 3-percent ceiling on wage increases in the next fiscal year. 1 

April 8 — In Vienna, the talks on Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions | 
recessed until May 17 with no progress reported. 

April 15 — At ceremonies in Washington, Greek Foreign Minister Bitsios | 
and Secretary of State Kissinger signed an agreement in principle on i 
defense cooperation which would extend for 4 years U.S. use of certain 
Greek military facilities. The agreement included a 4-year commitment 



■1 



83 



to Greece of $700 million in defense assistance, a part of which would 
be grants. 

April 25 — The Socialist Party won a plurality in parliamentary elections 
under Portgual's new constitution. The Socialists took approximately 35 
percent of the vote, followed by the liberal Popular Democratic Party 
with 24 percent, the conservative Social Democratic Center with 16 
percent, and the Portuguese Communist Party with 14.5 percent. 

April 28 — The Spanish Government announced that a referendum on con- 
stitutional changes would be held in October this year and elections for 
a reorganized Parliament early in 1977. The constitutional changes 
include replacing the present unicameral legislature with a two-house 
Parliament. 

April 30 — In Rome, the minority Christian Democratic government of Aldo 
Moro resigned, having found it impossible to establish a workable gov- 
erning arrangement with the other Italian political parties. The resigna- 
tion set the stage for early parliamentary elections in June. 

May 1 — Italian President Giovanni Leone dissolved Parliament in prepara- 
tion for national elections, which were scheduled for June 20 and 21. 

May & — A massive earthquake hit northeastern Italy's Friuli region leaving 
an estimated 900 dead, 400 missing, 2,000 injured and approximately 
150,000 homeless. 

May 7 — ^The Spanish Government announced a proposal for a two-house 
parliament in which the entire lower house and most of the senate would 
be directly elected. The government also recognized the right of workers 
to form labor unions outside the state-run syndicates. 

May 10—11 — A third summit meeting of French President Giscard d'Estaing 
and official of 19 African states took place in Paris. The French President 
made a number of wide-ranging proposals for economic cooperation and 
development which were endorsed in the conference's final communique. 

May 11 — ^The U.S. Senate approved S25 million in emergency relief for 
earthquake victims in Italy. Vice President Rockefeller toured the dev- 
astated area on May 13 to determine how American aid could best be 
used. 

May 12 — Portugal's Socialist Party announced its endorsement, along with 
that of the Centrist Popular Democratic Party and the conservative Cen- 
ter Democratic Party, of the army chief of staff. General Antonio 
Ramalho Eanes, for the Presidency. 

May 18 — French President Valery Giscard d'Estaing arrived in Wash- 
ington for a 5-day state visit to the United States. 

May 18 — The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations ordered favorably 
reported the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between the United 
States and Spain. (Exec. Kept. No. 94-25.) 

May 18 — The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations ordered favorably 
reported Senate Concurrent Resolution 105, expressing the sense of the 
Congress regarding democracy in Italy and participation by Italy in 
NATO. (S. Rept. 94-915.) 

May 18 — Canadian Foreign Minister MacEachen announced that Canada 
had decided to make permanent its suspension of nuclear cooperation 
with India. 



84 



May 20-21 — Fifteen NATO foreign ministers met in Oslo, Norway, for 
their semiannual meeting. A joint communique issued on May 21 pledged 
that NATO would "continue to strive for a relaxation of tensions" but 
stated that certain recent trends in East- West relations gave "cause for 
concern." 

May 20 — Secretary of State Henry Kissinger stated at the NATO foreign 
ministers' conference in Oslo that U.S. foreign policy would continue to 
support a firm defense of the West against Soviet military and ideological 
aggression. 

May 20 — Representatives of the EC and the 20-member Arab League ended 
3 days of inconclusive talks in Luxembourg, during which the Arabs 
demanded political support in return for economic cooperation. 

May 24 — The British and French Concorde began transatlantic service to 
Dulles Airport. 

May 25 — Spain's Parliament approved legislation legalizing most political 
meetings and demonstrations. 

May 31 — British and Icelandic delegations met in Oslo to exchange pro- 
posals on fishing limits in order to end the dispute between the two coun- 
tries over fishing rights. According to Norwegian sources, Britain and 
Iceland have agreed in principle to a 6-month truce while they work out 
the final agreement. 

June 2 — King Juan Carlos of Spain addressed a joint session of the U.S. 
Congress. 

June 7 — ^The United States put up $2 billion of a total of $5.3 billion pro- 
vided to bolster the British pound by the members of the Group of Ten 
(Belgium, Canada, France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, the 
Netherlands, and the United States.) The pound had sunk to an all time 
low of $1.70. 

June 9 — The Spanish Parliament (Cortes) approved a law legalizing politi- 
cal parties for the first time in 37 years. Rightists in the parliament later 
delayed implementation of the law, intensifying differences between con- 
servative Premier Arias and moderate reformers in the government. 

June 10 — According to press reports, the head of the Soviet delegation to 
the Vienna force reduction talks for the first time provided data on the 
number of Warsaw Pact air and land forces in the potential reduction 
zone. According to informed sources, the Warsaw Pact figures were 
"well below" NATO's estimates of the same forces. 

June 11 — The defense ministers of 12 NATO countries, meeting in Brus- 
sels, adopted 5-year planning goals "to maintain a valid deterrent in the 
face of the increasing capabilities of the Warsaw Pact." Following the 
meeting, U.S. Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld visited Athens and urged 
Greece to resume full participation in NATO's integrated military struc- 
ture. Greece restricted its participation in the aftermath of the Turkish 
invasion of Cyprus in 1974. 

June 11 — The Senate unanimously agreed to House Concurrent Resolution 
651 expressing congressional support for democracy in Italy and con- 
tinued participation in NATO. The resolution, passed by the House on 
June 9, states that it is the sense of Congress that the United States 
"should stand ready to participate in efforts to provide financial assist- 
ance to Italy through the proposed OECD Special Financing Facility 
and/ or by other means deemed appropriate." 



86 



June 21 — The Senate ratified the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation 
with Spain in a vote of 84-11. 

June 21 — The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the sale of 
the ninth American nuclear reactor to Spain. But in the first individual 
dissent in the Commission's history, one commission member protested 
that safeguards which will govern the transaction are insufficient to 
guard against nuclear weapons proliferation. 

June 22 — The House Committee on International Relations voted to table 
a resolution sponsored by Representative Harrington which would have 
directed the President to provide the House with information regarding 
payments by the United States to influence Italian politics. 

June 22 — Following a hard-fought campaign, parliamentary elections in 
Italy resulted in gains for the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and the 
ruling Christian Democratic Party (DC) at the expense of the smaller 
parties. The PCI garnered approximately 34.5 percent of the vote and the 
DC 38.8 percent. The Socialists barely held their own with 96 percent. 
The elections left the DC with the difficult task of forming a new govern- 
ment and the PCI with an even stronger claim on a say in national 
policymaking. 

June 22 — Press reports indicated that the Portuguese army had begun to 
receive new military equipment from the United States. Modern tanks 
and armed personnel carriers reportedly are intended to be used in form- 
ing a new air-transportable mechanized brigade earmarked for NATO 
use in case of war. 

Jiinp 27 — General Antonio Ramhlo Eanes handily won election as Portugal's 
first elected President under the new Portuguese constitution, capturing 
over 61 percent of the vote. 

June 28 — President Ford and leaders of Canada, West Germany, Japan, 
Britain, France, and Italy, issued a joint statement after 2 days of eco- 
nomic talks in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in which they agreed to pursue 
the objective of economic growth without inflation and to consider 
creating a new multinational credit facility to aid developed nations 
that experience temporary international payments problems. 

July 3 — Following the resignation of Spanish Premier Carlos Arias Navarro 
on July 1, King Juan Carlos chose his close friend, Adolfo Suarez 
Gonzalez as successor. 

July 5 — British Prime Minister James Callaghan made his first visit since 
becoming Prime Minister to Northern Ireland, where he said that 
the territory would remain part of the United Kingdom but that Ulster 
residents would have to learn to live together. 

July 5 — Italian Communist Pietro Ingrao was elected as speaker of the 
Italian Chamber of Deputies. 

July 6 — Queen Elizabeth of Great Britain began a 6-day bicentennial visit 
in Philadelphia. 

July 6 — The European Communities and Canada signed a general agree- 
ment designed to establish and strengthen commercial ties between 
them. 

July 7 — Gustav Heinemann, Social Democratic President of West Germany 
from 1969 to 1974, died at the age of 76. 



86 



July 7 — Spanish Premier Adolfo Suarez appointed a cabinet composed 
mainly of young, liberal, reform-minded Christian Democrats. 

July 12 — The heads of government of the European Communities reached 
tentative agreement on the distribution of seats in a new, directly elected 
European Parliament, scheduled for 1978. 

July 13 — Giulio Andreotti, a Christian Democrat and former Premier, was 
selected by Italian President Leone to attempt to form a new Italian 
cabinet in the wake of the indecisive June elections. 

July 14 — The Spanish Parliament approved changes in Spain's penal code 
to bring into effect earlier legislation legalizing political parties. The 
legislative body acted only after receiving assurances from the govern- 
ment that the Communist Party of Spain would continue to be illegal. 

July 15 — West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt arrived in Wash- 
ington for a ceremonial bicentennial visit. 

July 16 — Newly elected Portuguese President Eanes called on Socialist Party 
leader Soares to form Portugal's first constitutional government since 
the overthrow of the rightist dictatorship on April 25, 1974. 

July 17 — The United States and West Germany announced that the offset 
arrangements under which Bonn contributed toward the maintenance 
of American troops in West Germany would be replaced by a single pay- 
ment by Bonn toward the cost of increasing U.S. combat strength in West 
Germany by one brigade. 

July 17 — A White House spokesman said that he "would have no quarrel 
with" West German Chancellor Schmidt's statement that during the 
seven-nation economic summit in Puerto Rico the United States, West 
Germany, France, and Britain had agreed informally to bar additional 
loans to Italy if Communists hold cabinet posts in any new Italian 
Government. British Foreign Secretary Anthony Crosland subsequently 
denied that Britain was a party to such agreement. 

July 21 — The British Ambassador to Ireland Christopher Ewart-Biggs was 
killed when a land mine was detonated under his car on the outskirts of 
Dublin. 

July 21 — The East-West talks on mutual force reductions recessed for the 
summer with spokesmen for each side blaming the other for lack of 
results in the negotiations. Tlie talks are scheduled to resume on 
September 27. 

July 22 — U.S. Secretary of the Army Hoffman delayed a choice between 
competing main battle tank prototypes manufactured by Chrysler and 
General Motors pending further United States-West German efforts 
to agree on a common tank design or at least extensive use of inter- 
changeable parts. One of the U.S. prototypes is scheduled to be tested 
later this year against the West German entry in the tank competition, 
the Leopard II. 

July 23 — Portugal's Prime Minister Mario Soares and his government were 
sworn into office. The Cabinet is made up largelv of moderate Socialists 
with several independents and military officers. There are no Communists 
in the Cabinet. 

July 26— The Italian Communist Party, with 228 seats in the 620-seat Parlia- 
ment, won the chairmanship of four major committees: Finance and 
Treasury, Public Works, Constitutional Affairs and Transport. 



87 



July 28 — Great Britain broke diplomatic ties with Uganda after several 
weeks of deteriorating between the two countries. 

July 30 — King Juan Carlos of Spain granted an amnesty for all political 
prisoners except those sentenced for terrorist acts. Officials said between 
400 and 500 of an estimated 650 persons jailed for political crimes would 
be freed immediately. 

July 30 — Italian Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti and his minority cabinet 
composed only of Christian Democrats were sworn into office. 

August 5 — ^The Committee on International Relations reported House Reso- 
lution 14940, to authorize funds to implement the fiscal 1977 provisions 
of the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between the United States 
and Spain. 

August 9 — The Rome Council, now controlled by a coalition of Communists, 
Socialists, and Social Democrats, elected Marxist historian Giulio Carlo 
Argan Mayor of Rome. 

August 10 — General Antonio de Spinola, whose book critical of Portugal's 
colonial policies helped set off the April 25, 1974 revolution, and who 
served as Portugal's first postrevolutionary president, returned to 
Portugal. (Spinola had been in self-imposed exile since having been im- 
plicated in a right-wing coup attempt against the Lisbon government 
in May 1975.) 

August 11 — The minority Christian Democratic Government of Premier 
Giulio Andreotti received a vote of confident in the Italian Chamber of 
Deputies, thanks to abstentions by the Communists, the Socialists, the 
Social Democrats, the Republicans, and the Liberals. 

August 13 — In Lisbon, the United States and Portugal signed agreements 
providing for a special $25 million program of economic and social 
assistance. 

August 23 — President Ford transmitted notice to Congress of his intent 
to designate Portugal as a beneficiary developing country for purposes 
of the Generalized System of Preferences. 

August 25 — The Government of Spain refused to issue passports to allow 
two veteran Communist leaders — Party Chairman Santiago Carrillo and 
President Dolores Ibarruri — to return from exile. (Under the terms of a 
royal amnesty published on August 4, many Communist leaders had 
been released from jail or permitted to return from exile, but Spanish 
conservatives apparently had pressured the Government into refusing 
passports to Carrillo and Ibarruri. ) 

August 25 — The West German Government announced that the Bundesbank 
would grant the Bank of Italy a new gold-secured loan of approximately 
$2 billion. 

August 25 — French President Giscard d'Estaing appointed Raymond Barre, 
an economist with no political affiliations, to be Prime Minister, 
following the resignation of Gaullist Jacques Chirac from that post. 

August 26 — Prince Bemhard of the Netherlands resigned virtually all 
military and business posts following the publication of a government 
commission report which criticized his "unacceptable" relationship with 
the Lockheed Aircraft Corp. 



88 



August 31 — The Irish Government proposed emergency legislation to curb ] 
the IRA in the Republic that includes an increase in police powers of ! 
detention without trial to 7 days instead of 2; a maximum sentence of ' 
7 years instead of 2 for membership in the IRA; and a penalty of up to 
10 years imprisonment for inciting a person to join or support the IRA. 

September 4 — A coalition of Spanish opposition forces — the "Democratic 

Coordination" which includes Christian Democrats, Socialists, Commu- | 

nists, and regional groups — met openly in Madrid and issued a com- i 

munique calling for "Democratic freedoms; trade union freedom; | 
amnesty without exclusions; and political rights to the nationalities 

and regions." i 

September 9 — Portuguese Premier Mario Soares, warning that Portugal 
was threatened with imminent economic collapse, called for economic 
austerity and increased productivity and took a hard line against left- i 
wing agitation. 

September 10 — Spanish Prime Minister Adolf o Suarez Gonzales, in a 
speech to the nation, outlined a draft law on political reform, promising 
direct and secret election by universal suffrage of a new Spanish parlia- 
ment no later than June 1977. 

September 10 — British Prime Minister James Callaghan announced the 
reorganization of his cabinet. Merlyn Rees, formerly Secretary of State 
for Ireland, became Home Secretary. He replaced Roy Jenkins who will 
become President of the Commission of the European Community next i 
January. Mrs. Shirley Williams became Secretary for Education; Fred ' 
Mulley, formerly Education Secretary, became the Defense Secretary, ■ 
replacing Roy Mason who assumed the job of Secretary of State for ' 
Ireland. 

September 16 — The Council of Europe approved Portugal's application 

to become the 19th member of that organization. i 

September 19 — ^A Swedish three-party Center-right coalition led by i 
Thorbjorn Falldin defeated the Social Democratic Party under Prime i 
Minister Olof Palme which had held office for 44 years. With some \ 
postal votes still to be counted, the electoral tally was 180 parliamen- ] 
tary seats for the three-party coalition and 169 for the Social Demo- 
crats and Communists. No great change of policy is anticipated. ■ 

September 21 — In Madrid, Spanish Foreign Minister Oreja Aguirre and i 

U.S. Ambassador to Spain Wells Stabler exchanged the instruments of i 
ratification of the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between the 

United States and Spain. | 

September 22 — French Prime Minister Raymond Barre announced an I 

austerity plan aimed at curbing inflation which was running at a rate i 

of 11 to 12 percent. An immediate price freeze went into effect to be ; 

followed by 6.5 percent guidelines for 1977. Middle East class families ; 

and businesses were assessed a 4 percent tax surcharge and this rate was ' 

doubled for higher bracket taxpayers. Drastic controls on consumption i 
included a rise in the price of gasoline to $2.15 per gallon. 

September 22 — King Juan Carlos of Spain appointed Army General Manuel 

Gutierrez Mellado, reportedly the most liberal active general in the i 
army, as first premier for defense affairs, replacing conservative General i 
Fernando de Santiago y Diez de Mendivil who was retired. 



80 



September 30 — ^The East- West talks on mutual force reductions resumed in 
Vienna following the summer recess. 

September 30 — ^British Chancellor of the Exchequer Denis Healy announced 
to the Labour Party Conference at Blackpool that he would ask the 
International Monetary Fund for a loan of $3.9 billion to defend the 
pound. The pound has sunk to $1.64 on September 28. 

September 30 — The House accepted the House-Senate Conference Report 
on S. 3557 authorizing the appropriation of funds necessary during fiscal 
year 1977 to implement the provisions of the Treaty of Friendship and 
Cooperation between the United States and Spain. 

October 3 — Chancellor Helmut Schmidt's Social Democratic Party and 
his coalition partner, the Free Democratic Party, combined to win 50.6 
percent of the vote in the German parliamentary election. This total 
insures them of a parliamentary majority of 8 seats, a considerable 
erosion of the 46 seat margin they enjoyed in the previous 4 years. 

October 4 — A prominent Spanish rightist, Juan Maria de Araluce Villar, 
was assassinated in a terrorist attack. The Basque autonomist move- 
ment ETA claimed responsibility for the killing. 

October 5 — In Athens, the Greek Government announced that the Greek- 
U.S. bases agreement would not be concluded until after the Presiden- 
tial elections in the United States. 

October 8 — Italian Prime Minister Andreotti revealed his government's 
austerity program which included proposals for strict monetary con- 
trols, partial wage curbs, and an increase in the price of gasoline. 

October 9 — French President Valery Giscard d'Estaing reannounced a deci- 
sion to withdraw 10,000 men from the French First Army Division de- 
ployed in West Germany, reportedly for financial reasons. The West 
Germans do not offset the expense of stationing troops in Germany. 

October 11 — ^The Spanish Government denied as false reports in the Wash- 
ington Post that secret clauses exist in the Treaty of Friendship and 
Cooperation with the United States. A government spokesman said that 
the treaty, its complementary agreements and procedural annexes are 
all public. 

October 11 — ^The French Government indicated its willingness to discuss 
on an international level limitations on the spread of nuclear tech- 
nology, including proposals for sharing markets with other nuclear ex- 
porters, in return for tighter international controls. 

October 17 — The value of the West German mark was raised between 2 
and 6 percent against several other West European currencies at a meet- 
ing of finance ministers and central bank heads of countries in the so- 
called "European snake," the European joint float. 

October 18 — The Central Committee of the Italian Communist Party 
(PCI) met amid signs that the party's benign attitude toward the 
minority government of Christian Democrat Prime Minister Andreotti 
was causing tensions within the PCI. 

October 19 — Canada's governing Liberal Party lost two bi-elections in the 
one-time safe constituency of Ottawa Carlton and in St. John's New- 
foundland. Public opinion polls showed the Liberal Party nationally 
trailing the Progressive Conservatives by 33 to 45 percent. 



90 



October 23 — In Portugal, the popular leftist army major, Otelo de Car- 
valho, began serving a 20-day prison term. Carvalho was sentenced for 
participation in a political rally in violation of the code of military 
discipline which limits political activity by military oflficers. 

October 25 — The British pound dropped 5 cents in 1 day to $1,595 fol- 
lowing a London Sunday Times story that the United States and the 
International Monetary Fund seek a $1.50 level as a condition for 
the $3.9 billion loan requested by Britain. U.S. Treasury Secretary 
Simon and IMF officials denied the story. 

October 27 — Spain's King Juan Carlos arrived in Paris on his first offi- 
cial visit to a West European country since Franco's death. The visit 
was viewed as part of the King's attempt to regain international respect- 
ability for Spain and bring the country into the mainstream of European 
affairs. 

October 28 — The Pentagon announced a move to increase the capability 
of its jet-fighter force in Europe by about a third in an effort to coun- 
ter military improvements made by the Warsaw Pact, namely the in- 
troduction of the Mig-23 Interceptors. The net U.S. increase amounts 
to 84 aircraft and 3,000 men. 

October 28 — Three men, apparently disguised as medical staff, slipped into 
a Belfast hospital and shot and killed Marie Drumm, the former vice 
president of the Provisional Sinn Fien, the political wing of the Irish 
Republican Army. 

October 30 — Portuguese Prime Minister Soares, addressing the Socialist 
Party's second national congress, appealed for support of his govern- 
ment's efforts to restore economic and social stability. Most of West- 
tern Europe's Socialist leaders attended the congress as a sign of their 
support for Soares and his party. 

November 1 — Following; a ministerial meeting in the Hague, the Council 
of Ministers of the European Community decided to create a 200-mile 
fishing limit on Community members' North Sea and Atlantic coastlines 
as of January 1, 1977. 

November 2 — Britain and France announced that they will build no more 
Concorde supersonic jet transports than the 16 already built or under 
construction unless they get orders for additional planes. 

November 8 — The British Labour Government narrowly survived three 
votes in parliament. A bill dealing with the nationalization of the ship- 
building and aircraft industries passed by only one vote (311-310). In 
the previous week two Labour candidates were defeated in by-elections 
by Conservatives in normally pro-Labour districts. 

November 9 — Dr. Patrick J. Hillery became the youngest man to be awarded 
the Presidency of Ireland, succeeding Caerbhall O'Dalaigh who resigned 
suddenly after a personal disagreement with a Cabinet Minister on 
October 22. 

November 12 — In Rome, the minority Christian Democratic government of 
Prime Minister Andreotti survived a vote of confidence following debate 
in the Chamber of Deputies on the Government's economic austerity 
program. Only the Christian Democratic deputies voted for the Govern- 
ment, and the motion passed thanks to the abstention of most other 
deputies, including the Communists. 



91 



November 15 — Senators Sam Nunn and Dewey Bartlett, returning from a 
study mission of NATO, warned that improvements in Soviet conven- 
tional capabilities and weaknesses in NATO's posture could invite a 
successful conventional Warsaw Pact attack on Western Europe. The 
Senators recommended strengthening NATO's conventional forces and 
repositioning of major combat units closer to the Eastern borders. 

November 15 — Rene Levesque, leader of the Separatist Party of Quebec, 
polled approximately 40 percent of the popular vote in a provincial 
election and won 69 of the 110 seats in the Quebec legislature as com- 
pared to 6 seats in 1973. The results were interpreted as a protest vote 
against the administration of incumbent Premier Bourassa and the eco- 
nomic record of the National Government. Mr. Levesque stated that he 
could not be expected to abandon his long-term goal of independence 
but he intended to rule as a provincial premier for the next 4 years within 
the present structure. 

November 15 — The European Community rejected a Soviet bloc proposal 
to conduct commercial relations with the Communist trade group COME 
CON, stating a preference for dealing with the Communist states on an 
individual basis. 

November 16 — State Department officials confirmed that the United States 
was planning to extend about $300 million in emergency economic aid 
to Portugal. 

November 18 — The Spanish Cortes (Parliament) decisively approved a 
plan for constitutional reform to lead to parliamentary elections in 1977. 
The plan, if approved in a popular referendum on December 15, would 
replace the currently unrepresentative Francoist parliament with Spain's 
first democratically elected legislature since the Spanish civil war. 

November 19 — The Christian Social Union of Bavaria, led by Franz Josef 
Strauss, voted to end a 27-year alliance with its coalition partner, the 
Christian Democratic Union. As a result, Chancellor Schmidt's Social 
Democratic Party will regain its position as the strongest party in the 
Bundestag. 

November 23 — In Rome, the members of the European Program Group 
continued discussion of their efforts to coordinate production of defense 
equipment. Following the 2-day meeting, a spokesman announced that 
Portugal had joined the group, so that the membership now included 
all the European members of NATO, but reports indicated that little 
progress was made on the central question the group's relationship with 
the United States and Canada. 

November 30 — The British Government introduced a bill in parliament to 
grant some power of self-rule to Scotland and Wales. The bill provides 
for a Scottish assembly of 150 members and a Welsh assembly of 80. 
They will have the power to determine spending priorities in such areas 
as education, housing, transportation and industrial development but 
will not be able to raise revenue through taxes. London will keep au- 
thority over defense, foreign relations, and the North Sea oil deposits. 

November 30 — During a summit conference at the Hague, the nine leaders 
of the members of the European Community called for a meeting as soon 
as possible between the Community and the administration of President- 
elect Jimmy Carter. 



02 



December 5 — Italian Prime Minister Andreotti began an ofl&cial visit to the 
United States for the primary purpose of discussing Italy's economic 
problems with American officials. 

December 8 — The NATO defense ministers agreed in principle to purchase 
the Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) from the United 
States. The ministers agreed to meet again early in 1977 to make a final 
decision on the flying radar system. 

December 10 — The NATO foreign ministers, meeting in Brussels, rejected 
a proposal from the Warsaw Pact for a mutual renunciation of the first 
use of nuclear weapons. The NATO ministers also rejected a Pact pro- 
posal — aimed at forestalling Spanish membership in NATO — for freez- 
ing current membership in the two alliances. In a message delivered by 
Secretary of State Kissinger, President-elect Carter told the ministers 
that "the American commitment to maintaining the NATO alliance shall 
be sustained and strengthened under my administration." 

December 11 — In Madrid, Spain's fourth-ranking government official, 
Council of State President Antonio Maria de Oriol, was kidnaped by 
gunmen of an extreme left guerrilla organization. 

December 12 — West Germany's two conservative parties, the Christian 
Democratic and the Christian Social Unions, reconciled differences that 
had threatened to end their 27-year-old parliamentary alliance. 

December 13 — Portugal's governing Socialists held their own in nation- 
wide local elections, winning over 33 percent of the votes cast. The out- 
come was widely regarded as a vote of confidence for the Socialists and 
a sign of political stability for the new Portuguese democracy. 

December 15 — Spanish voters overwhelmingly approved by referendum 
reform of the Spanish j>oliticaI system including election of a new parlia- 
ment in 1977. 

December 15 — SPD Chancellor Helmut Schmidt was reelected to the chan- 
cellorship by the Bundestag. He received 250 votes, only 1 more than the 
required absolute majority. 

December 16 — In Vienna, NATO and Warsaw Pact negotiators recessed 
their talks on mutual force reductions with spokesmen admitting that 
during the 3 years of talks the two sides had increased, rather than re- 
duced, troop levels in Central Europe. 

December 19 — Following a December 15 announcement by France that it 
would curb its nuclear technology exports. West Germany voiced similar 
intentions to refrain from nuclear exports that might lead to the con- 
struction of new weapons. The ban, however, will not affect the planned 
S4 billion nuclear reactor transaction with Brazil. 

December 22 — The Group of Ten, which includes the United States and 
nine other major industrial nations, agreed to provide $3,289 billion of 
the $3.9 billion loan that Britain has requested from the IMF. The 
United States promised to contribute the largest share of the loan — 
$1,087 billion. 

December 22 — Santiago Carrillo, Secretary General of the Spanish Com- 
munist Party, was arrested in Madrid. He had reportedly been operating 
underground in Spain for nearly a year. 



93 



December 30 — Spanish Communist leader Carrillo was released on bail. 
The same day, the Madrid government announced two significant legal 
reforms, abolishing the Court of Public Order which had considered 
political cases during the Franco regime and decreeing that cases of 
"terrorism" would no longer be considered by military tribunals but by 
ordinary civilian courts. 



81-813 O - 77 - 7 



UNITED STATES-SOVIET-CHINESE RELATIONS' 



January 8 — A Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) study was made public 
which predicted that China will be in a position to export in 1985 only 
a tenth of the oil now being exported by members of the Organization 
of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) . 

January 8 — The Soviet Union complied with a section of the Final Act of 
the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe by notifying 
Western countries of maneuvers to be conducted along the Turkish 
border and inviting NATO observers. 

January 9 — The New China News Agency reported from Peking that Pre- 
mier Chou En-lai died of cancer at the age of 78. Vice Premier Teng 
Hsiao-ping is Chou's apparent successor. 

January 12 — Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko warned in Tokyo that the 
Soviet Union might "reconsider" its relations with Japan if that country 
signed a proposed treaty with the People's Republic of China. 

January 13 — Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko ended a 5-day series 
of talks with Japanese leaders in Tokyo, attempting to conclude a World 
War II peace treaty. The Soviets reportedly exasperated the Japanese 
by rejecting Japan's key demand — return of four Soviet-held islands in 
the southern Kurile chain. 

January 13 — Prime Minister Takeo Miki said Japan would sign as soon 
as possible a peace treaty with China including the antihegemony clause, 
to which the Soviet Union objected. 

January 15— A Bureau of Mines report said that China may become one 
of the world's top five oil producers by 1985, producing 4 million bar- 
rels a day. 

January 20 — Western press reports indicated that the Soviet Union had 
taken steps to simplify emigration procedures, including the lowering 
of exit visa fees. 

January 23 — Secretary of State Kissinger concluded 3 days of talks with 
Soviet leaders in Moscow. The sides reportedly made some progress 
toward a second SALT agreement but were unable to reach any under- 
standing on Angola. 

January 27 — In a report to the Congress, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld 
suggested that Japan consider establishing a capability to conduct anti- 
submarine warfare. The Defense Secretary said that the biggest threat 
to keeping the Northeast Asian sea lanes open was Soviet submarines. 

January 30 — Secretary of State Kissinger testified before Congress that 
the administration would not press for a relaxation of trade restrictions 
against the Soviet Union as long as Soviet involvement in Angola 
continued. 

* Prepared by Francis Miko and Marjorie Niehaus, Analysts in International Rela- 
tions. 

^95) 



96 



February 1 — The Soviet news agency TASS and newspaper Pravda car- 
ried reports strongly criticizing President Ford and Secretary of State 
Kissinger for allegedly distorting Soviet policies and activities in 
Angola. 

February 1 — The official Chinese newspaper the Peoples Daily charged 
that Moscow has become a "super" arms dealer in the pursuit of political 
and military advantages and in a bid to bring recipient countries into 
its sphere of influence. 

February 3 — Secretary of State Henry Kissinger delivered a speech in San 
Francisco on Soviet-American relations in which he generally defended 
the policy of detente but cautioned that the United States must maintain 
an equilibrium of power with the Soviet Union, and must oppose direct 
intervention by the Soviet Union and other Communist countries in 
places such as Angola. 

February 6 — An attack on "capitalist readers" appeared in the People's 
Daily, which appeared to be directed at Vice Premier Teng Hsiao-ping, 
who had been expected to succeed the late Chou En-lai. 

February 7 — The New China News Agency referred to Hua Kuo-feng, a 
Vice Premier and Minister of Public Security, as Acting Premier, suc- 
ceeding the late Premier Chou En-lai. 

February 18 — The People's Daily reported that the central committee of 
the Communist Party was split by the current political crisis. 

February 19 — The Second World Conference on Soviet Jewry, meeting in 
Brussels, condemned Soviet anti-Semitism and called on the Soviet Union 
to respect the right of Jews to practice their own religion and to emigrate 
to Israel. 

February 20 — The Soviet newspaper Pravda repudiated charges from the 

West, including West European Communist parties, concerning Soviet 
denial of human rights and suppression of dissent. 

February 21 — Former President Richard Nixon arrived in Peking and 
began his 9-day stay in China at the invitation of the PRC Government. 

February 22 — At a banquet for former President Nixon, Hua Kuo-feng, 
China's Acting Premier, said that a "revolutionary mass debate" was 
occurring throughout the nation and was affecting such fields as educa- 
tion, science, and technology. 

February 24 — The 25th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet 

Union opened in Moscow, attended by delegates from the Soviet Union 
and 96 foreign countries. In this 5-hour keynote speech, Soviet Com- 
munist Party leader Leonid Brezhnev pledged his country to the con- 
tinued pursuit of detente and arms limitation. He defended the Soviet 
involvement in Angola and lauded worldwide Communist successes. On 
the subject of the Soviet economy, he claimed significant progress but 
conceded that there were setbacks in agriculture and the consumer 
sector, blaming them on human as well as natural causes. 

February 24 — China announced a new government program that placed 
greater emphasis on agriculture over industry in national development. 

February 26 — Dr. Malcolm R. Currie, the director of defense research at 
the Department of Defense, warned of rapid advances in Soviet weap- 



97 



ons technology and declared that the Soviet leaders view strategic war 
as inevitable and are, therefore, preparing to survive such a war. 

February 27 — ^The newest Peking wall posters openly denounced Vice Pre- 
mier Teng Hsiao-ping. 

February 27 — ^The Central Intelligence Agency presented a report to Con- 
gress showing that the Soviet Union outspent the United States on 
defense by 40 percent in 1975 (meaisured in terms of how much it 
would cost the United States to duplicate Soviet programs) . 

March 1 — President Ford, in a Miami interview, said that he had stopped 
using the word detente because it inadequately expressed a complex 
process. He described that process as seeking to "relax tensions so that 
we can continue a policy of peace through strength." 

March 5 — Soviet Minister of Agriculture Dmitri S. Polyanski was removed 
from his position in the ruling Politburo at the closing session of the 
25th Soviet Communist Party Congress. In addition, Leningrad Party 
leader Grigory V. Romanov and Minister of Defense Industries Dmitri 
F. Ustinov were elevated to full membership in the Politburo. 

March 11 — ^The Boston Globe reported that President Ford has promised 
the People's Republic of China to cut the American military presence 
on Taiwan by 50 percent in the next year. There are about 2,200 
American servicemen presently on Taiwan. 

March 14 — ^The New China News Agency characterized Teng Hsiao-ping 
as "the maker of splits" who paid lip service to the policy of Chairman 
Mao Tse-tung while emphasizing economic development. 

March 15 — The Administration indicated that it had postponed three 
scheduled cabinet-level meetings of joint Soviet- American commis- 
sions on trade, housing, and energy, as a signal of U.S. concern over 
Soviet activities in Angola. 

March 16 — Secretary of State Kissinger, speaking before the Senate For- 
eign Relations Committee, said that the next President, whoever he 
may be, must carry on a dual policy with the Soviet Union which com- 
bines military firmness with efforts to increase cooperation in economic 
and other fields. 

March 17 — China accused the Soviet Union in the Security Council of 
"hatching new schemes" in southern Africa in the wake of its armed 
intervention in Angola, and referred to the "crimes" that the Soviet 
Union had committed in Angola to further its design of "colonial 
expansion" and world hegemony. 

March 17 — The Soviet news agency TASS reported on a speech by chief 
Soviet Communist Party theoretician Mikhail Suslov in which he 
attacked the more independent Western European Communist Parties, 
calling those who interpret Communist dogma in their own fashion 
"enemies of Marxism." 

March 22 — The Washington Post reported that Great Britain and the Soviet 
Union had helped secure guarantees from the Angolan Government 
enabling the South African troops to withdraw from southern Angola. 

March 27 — South African troops completed their withdrawal from south- 
ern Angola pulling back into Namibia (South-West Africa). Accord- 
ing to reports, about 1,600 Angolan refugees withdrew with the troops. 



98 



March 31 — The United Nations Security Council approved a resolution 
which denounced South Africa's aggression against Angola and called 
on the South African Government to pay compensation to Angola for 
damages. The vote was 9-0 and the United States, France, Great 
Britain, Italy, and Japan abstained while China did not participate. 
During the debate, U.S. Ambassador Scranton demanded an "immediate 
and complete withdrawal" of the 13,000-man Cuban expeditionary force 
in Angola. Representatives of the abstaining nations explained that 
they did so because the resolution denounced only the South African 
intervention, not the much greater Soviet-Cuban involvement. 

April 1 — American and Japanese banks agreed to provide $50 million to 
the Soviet Union toward the financing of preliminary exploration for 
natural gas in the Yakutsk region of eastern Siberia. The Bank of Amer- 
ica was the only U.S. bank involved and will provide $25 million. 

April 5 — Over 100,000 Chinese demonstrators in Peking rioted, set fire to 
vehicles, and fought with police after wreaths were removed from 
Qiou En-lai's grave. The protest reportedly was directed against Chair- 
man Mao Tse-tung. 

April 8 — ^The Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 
announced the dismissal of Teng Hsiao-ping from all his positions, in- 
side and outside the party, and the promotion of acting Premier Hua 
Kuo-feng as prime minister and first vice chairman of the CCP. 

April 8 — Thousands of Chinese workers demonstrated in Peking to celebrate 
the downfall of former Vice Premier Teng Hsiao-ping and the elevation 
of Hua Kuo-feng to the premiership. 

April 8 — Secretary Kissinger said in New York that he sympathized with 
Teng Hsiao-ping and stressed that Sino-American relations would con- 
tinue toward normalization. 

April 8 — Analysts in the United States agreed that the leadership shifts in 
China represented an attempt at a compromise rather than a clear-cut 
victory for the "radical" faction that had led the campaign against Mr. 
Teng as an "unrepentent capitalist roader." 

April 11 — President Ford, in a letter of congratulations to Hua Kuo-feng, 
affirmed the U.S. commitment "to complete the normalization of our 
relations on the basis of the Shanghai communique." 

April 11 — Former Defense Secretary James Schlesinger disclosed that 
American officials once informally discussed granting military aid to 
the People's Republic of China. 

April 15 — At a White House ceremony at which Thomas Gates, the new 
American envoy to Peking, was sworn in. President Ford said the 
process of normalization of relations with China was now well underway. 

April 19 — Premier Hua Kuo-feng praised the Egyptians for breaking their 
treaty with the Soviet Union. 

April 20 — Chairman Mao Tse-tung expressed Peking's "strong support" 
for Egypt in a meeting with an Egyptian delegation seeking arms from 
China. 

April 20 — In Peking a group of nine U.S. Congressmen had a friendly 
talk with Vice Premier Chang Chun-chiao. 



99 



April 21 — ^The PRC and Egypt signed a military protocol by which China 
reportedly agreed to supply military equipment to Egypt. The two coun- 
tries also announced that they would sign a trade agreement next month. 

April 21 — The PRC accused the Soviet Union of trying to undermine 
NATO, and Moscow charged that Peking has stepped up military 
activity on its southern borders. 

April 22 — Soviet KGB leader Yuri V. Andropov, in a keynote speech 
marking the anniversary of Lenin's birthday, warned the West against 
a department from the policy of detente. He reaffirmed Soviet support 
for "wars of national liberation." 

April 25 — The Cairo press reported that China had agreed to provide Egypt 
with all the spare parts needed for its Soviet-built war planes and other 
arms at no cost. 

April 25 — A nine-member congressional delegation, headed by Representa- 
tive Melvin Price, returned from China and said that the PRC was not 
interested in formal defense or arms-purchasing arrangements with the 
United States. The House members said the Chinese did not want any 
formal agreement beyond the 1972 Shanghai communique. 

April 26 — Soviet Minister of Defense Marshal Andrei A. Grechko died at 
the age of 72. 

April 29 — Dmitri F. Ustinov was appointed Soviet Minister of Defense to 
replace the late Marshal Grechko. Ustinov, a Politburo member, had 
been Minister of Defense Industries. 

April 29 — There was an explosion at the gates of the Soviet Embassy in 
Peking, and the Moscow Government lodged a protest with the PRC 
over the incident. 

April 30 — China called the explosion outside the Soviet Embassy in Peking 
an act of sabotage by a counter-revolutionary. 

May 5 — The Senate adopted a resolution calling for a continuation of the 
policy of detente with the Soviet Union from a position of military 
strength. 

May 6 — The International Institute for Strategic Studies in London released 
its annual Strategic Survey, claiming that the United States had emerged 
from 1975 "in better shape" than the Soviet Union. The report observed 
the emergence of a "crisis" over the concept of detente in the West. 

May 9 — The Soviet Union's new defense minister, Dmitri F. Ustinov, de- 
clared that the international position of the Soviet Union has become 
strong as never before in the face of growing armed strength in the West 
and extremism in China. 

May 11 — Chinese Premier Hua Kuo-feng said there has been no change in 
China's foreign policy since he assumed his office. 

May 12 — The Washington Post reported that the British Foreign Secretary 
Anthony Crosland was told in early May in Peking by Chinese Foreign 
Minister Chaio Kuan-hua that the Chinese saw no possibility of a new 
war in Korea and approved the continuing U.S. military presence in 
Japan. 



100 



May 12 — A Tokyo correspondent for the official Soviet press agency 
Novosti, Alexandre Matchekhine, was arrested in Tokyo on charges of 
espionage against the United States. Matchekhine allegedly offered a 
petty officer on the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Midway S1,000 payments for 
U.S. military secrets. 

May 15 — Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, speaking in Frankfurt, West 
Germany, accused the Soviet Union of seeking to establish a new world 
empire. 

May 15 — A joint editorial in China's PeopWs Daily, the Liberation Daily, 
and Red Flag, said that rightists remain powerful and warned that China 
faced further political struggle. 

May 20 — Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, speaking at a NATO foreign 
ministers' meeting in Oslo, warned that Soviet power was likely to grow, 
necessitating larger efforts by NATO countries to maintain a military 
balance. 

May 20 — According to press accounts in the United States, there were two 
and possibly three executions in China as a result of the anti-govern- 
ment disturbance in Peking in April 1976. About 10 persons reportedly 
were given prison sentences of up to 30 years. 

May 21 — According to the UPI, American experts on China have predicted 
a period of intense turbulence in the People's Republic of China that 
could be more serious than the Cultural Revolution. 

May 22 — Japan freed a Soviet journalist 10 days after he was arrested and 
charged with attempting to buy military secrets from a U.S. Navy petty 
officer. Japan demanded "necessary action" by the Soviet Union. 

May 24 — The Japanese Parliament agreed to ratify the nuclear Non-Prolif- 
eration Treaty. 

May 25 — The State Department said that the Soviet Union had acknowledged 
violating a provision of the 1972 strategic arms limitation agreement 
establishing a timetable for dismantling older missiles after they were 
replaced. According to the State Department, the situation was being 
corrected. 

May 25 — An article in the Soviet weekly Literary Gazette accused three 
American correspondents in Moscow of working for the U.S. Central 
Intelligence Agency. 

May 26 — China's Premier Hua Kuo-feng said that Peking welcomed the 
end of tensions between India and Pakistan and hoped for friendly co- 
existence among the nations of the South Asian subcontinent. 

May 27 — The Soviet news agency TASS said that the U.S. State Depart- 
ment had refused entry visas to a Soviet trade union delegation because 
of AFL-CIO objections to their planned visit. 

May 27 — According to press accounts, American analysts have concluded 
that the People's Republic of China will not soon become a major oil 
exporter because it plans to use its extensive oil resources to develop its 
own economy. Within 15 years, China is expected to be producing more 
than 2.8 billion barrels of crude oil a year, about the current annual 
production of the United States. 



101 



May 27 — Representative Zablocki told the House International Relations 
Committee hearing on Taiwan normalization that the United States may 
be ready to cut off diplomatic relations with the Nationalist Chinese Gov- 
ernment on Taiwan after next November's Presidential election. Dr. Ray 
S. Cline testified that Secretary Kissinger "strongly pressured" President 
Ford to grant full diplomatic relations to Peking during his official visit 
to China in December 1975. 

May 28 — President Ford and Soviet Communist Party General Secretary 
Brezhnev signed a treaty limiting the size of underground nuclear explo- 
sions for peaceful purposes. (See arms control section.) 

May 28 — Senator Goldwater said that in a phone conversation with him, 
Secretary Kissinger assured the Senator that there was no truth to 
rumors that the Ford administration was ready to terminate relations 
with Taiwan and extend full diplomatic recognition to Peking. 

June 1 — Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin arrived in Syria from Iraq to con- 
clude a Middle East tour, aimed at improving the Soviet position in the 
region. 

June 2 — President Ford transmitted to Congress his recommendation that 
Romania be granted a 12-month extension of most-favored-nation treat- 
ment and eligibility for Export-Import Bank credits. While waiving 
application of the Jackson-Vanik amendment to the Trade Act of 1974, 
the President noted that the flow of emigration from Romania had 
increased markedly since the implementation of a United States- 
Romanian trade agreement. 

June 4 — The Japanese cabinet approved a white paper on defense in which 
Japan pledged that it will not go nuclear to avoid any suspicion and fear 
arising in other nations and will continue to depend on the U.S. nuclear 
deterrent against any nuclear threat. The Japanese white paper also said 
the Sino-United States rapprochement became "to some extent" a re- 
gional stabilizing factor but said the region is far from stable "because 
of its multiplicity." 

June 4 — In the summer issue of Foreign Policy, Roger Glenn Brown, Cen- 
tral Intelligence Agency analyst, stated that further U.S. delay in for- 
mally recognizing the People's Republic of China runs the risk of 
destroying the new American relationship with Peking. According to 
Mr. Brown, after the death of Mao Tse-tung, China will probably move 
either toward a new isolationism or toward accommodation with the 
Soviet Union. 

Jun*> 8 — At a formal dinner for visiting Indian Prime Minister Indira 
Gandhi, Soviet Leader Lenoid Brezhnev attacked Western opponents of 
detente and "those who succumb to their pressure ... on the basis of 
temporary considerations." At the same time, he denied charges that the 
Soviet Union was seeking unilateral advantage from detente. 

June 8 — An article in the Los Angeles Times stated that Mikhail A. Suslov, 
the leading Soviet Communist Party ideologist and a member of the 
ruling Soviet Politburo, had emerged as second in command behind 
Brezhnev in the Soviet leadership since the 25th Communist Party 
Congress. 

June 15 — Chinese officials announced in Peking that Mao Tse-tung will no 
longer receive foreign dignitaries due to his health. 



102 



June 15 — Fyodor Kulakov, a member of the 16-man Moscow Politburo, told 
the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Congress in Ulan Bator 
that "the Soviet Communist Party will consistently realize a highly prin- 
cipled course in relations to China," and that it is up to the Chinese 
side to normalize relations between the two Communist superpowers. 

June 20 — In Peking, Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser told Chi- 
nese Premier Hua Kui-feng that he had "serious doubts" about the 
ability of the United States to counter growing Soviet power because of 
"disagreement between President Ford and the Congress." Fraser said 
that if there is no U.S. naval presence in the Indian Ocean "it would 
become a Russian sea." 

June 23 — A Vienna neurologist arrived in Peking to treat Mao Tse-tung. 

June 23 — The State Department said the United States removed its six mili- 
tary advisers from the Nationalist China islands of Quemoy and Matsu. 
Press accounts reported that the action was taken as part of the American 
promise to end the U.S. military presence in Nationalist China which was 
made in the Shanghai communique of 1972. White House Secretary 
Ron Nessen said the action "had no policy implications" for Washing- 
ton's relations with Peking and Taipei. 

June 26 — In response to strikes and growing worker unrest, the Polish Gov- 
ernment canceled consumer price increases announced the previous day. 

June 28 — United Press International (UPI) reported that Nationalist China 
had purchased a $34 million air defense system from an American com- 
pany. The system will be provided under a private agreement by the 
Hughes Aircraft Corp. State Department officials told UPI that the air 
defense system was "purely defensive," and the deal did not represent 
a shift in American policy towards either Peking or Taipei. 

June 29 — Soviet Communist leader Leonid Brezhnev, speaking at the sum- 
mit meeting of European Communist Party leaders, expressed his coun- 
try's continued commitment to improving relations with the United 
States but accused the U.S. administration of delaying a strategic arms 
limitation agreement for political reasons. 

June 30 — A meeting of European Communist Party leaders was concluded 
in East Berlin with a statement of principles endorsing each Communist 
Party's right to conduct its own affairs. It excluded any reference to 
Soviet leadership of the international Communist movement. 

July 4 — In a Bicentennial message to President Ford, Soviet President 
Nikolai Podgorny expressed the hope that Soviet-American relations 
would continue to aim toward achieving international security and 
peace. 

July 6 — Marshal Chu Teh, co-founder of the Chinese Communist Army 
and one of the last surviving Chinese leaders who had accompanied Mao 
Tse-tung on the Long March, died in Peking at the age of 90. 

July 7 — Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin called for closer economic integra- 
tion among socialist states in a speech delivered at a meeting of the 
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance in East Berlin. 

July 15 — The Japan Times (English edition) reported that Ko Maruyama, 
director general of the Defense Agency's Defense Bureau, told the 
Diet that Japan would not like to see a drastic change occur in con- 



103 



nection with the security of Taiwan. He, thus, endorsed Foreign Min- 
ister Miyazawa's similar view, expressed to Senator Mansfield in Tokyo 
on July 12. 

July 17 — The Soviet newspaper Pravda attacked a speech by Austrian 
Chancellor Kreisky, marking the U.S. Bicentennial, for giving the U.S. 
primary credit for the liberation of Austria after World War II. 

July 19 — According to the French newspaper Le Monde, Soviet leader 
Brezhnev sent a note to the Syrian Government accusing it of prolonging 
the war in Lebanon and requesting that Syria remove its troops from 
that country. The note was reportedly dated July 11. 

July 20 — Japan confirmed that the People's Republic of China had officially 
protested Japanese Foreign Minister Miyazawa's warning to U.S. Sen- 
ator Mansfield against cancellation of the U.S. security treaty with 
Taiwan or any sudden or drastic change in Sino-American relations. 

July 22 — Secretary Kissinger publicly renewed a suggestion for a conference 
of the United States, the People's Republic of China, and North and 
South Korea to discuss a permanent armistice in Korea. Kissinger said 
that American troops will not be withdrawn from the Korean Peninsula 
until a permanent peace is arranged. 

July 24 — Wu Teh, mayor of Peking, was reported to have been selected 
to perform the functions of the chairman of the National People's 
Congress (China's nearest equivalent to a head of state), a post which 
has been vacant since the death of Marshal Chu Teh on July 6. 

July 26 — A delegation of staff members of several congressional commit- 
tees arrived in Peking. 

July 27 — Northern China was hit by a powerful earthquake which was 
centered 90 miles southeast of Peking near Tienstin, and which measured 
8.2 on the Richter scale. 

July 28 — The U.S. Government offered aid to China in recovery efforts 
after a July 27 earthquake and a severe aftershock on the 28th. 

July 29 — Great losses of life and property were reported in China in the 
aftermath of the earthquake. Tangshan, a city of more than 1.5 million 
citizens, was reported devastated by the earthquake and aftershock. 

July 29 — Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser told the National Press 
Club in Washington, D.C., that international stability will not be possible 
unless the People's Republic of China is more fully involved in the world 
community. Fraser said, "whatever view one takes of China's ideology, 
it is clear that Chinese society manifests a sense of purpose and self 
reliance." 

July 30 — Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev accused the United States, Britain, 
France, and West Germany of attempting to dictate to Italy by threaten- 
ing to withhold financial aid if the Communists are given a role in the 
Italian government. The criticism was contained in an interview^ pub- 
lished by Pravda. 

July 30 — The Senate agreed to Senate Resolution 499, supporting a Presi- 
dential offer to assist victims of recent earthquakes in China, and ex- 
pressing condolences to the victims of this tragedy. China declined the 
offer on July 31. 



104 



August 2 — Senator Hugh Scott, who returned in late July from a 14-day 
trip to China, said in Washington that "the radicals who have grabbed 
the party machinery" in China have insisted on an early timetable for 
U.S. normalization of relations with Peking and breaking ties with 
Taiwan. These leaders, said Scott, view the liberation of Taiwan as 
"an internal affair." 

August 10 — The Soviet Embassy in Washington denied claims by some 
Western observers that underground nuclear explosions conducted by 
the Soviet Union in July exceeded the limits established in agreements 
with the United States. 

August 12 — An authoritative article appearing in a Soviet naval journal 
claimed the right of any Soviet ship to pass through the Bosporus Straits, 
according to a Reuter dispatch. The article rejected Western allegations 
that the recent passage of the aircraft carrier Kiev through the Turkish 
straits violated the Montreux Convention of 1936. 

August 27 — The Soviet Union sentenced three Americans to prison terms 
for attempting to smuggle heroin through the Soviet Union. 

August 28 — The U.S. Navy frigate Voge reportedly collided with a Soviet 
nuclear submarine in the Ionian Sea. 

August 29 — The Washington Post reported that "U.S. intelligence reports 
over the past 6 months indicate that Taiwan has been secretly reproc- 
essing spent uranium fuel, an operation that can produce atomic 
weapons material, according to officials of the ACDA and the ERDA." 
The Associated Press reported that an administration official had con- 
firmed the Post's account. The official said, according to the AP, thai 
the conditions under which the U.S. ships nuclear power reactors and 
enriched uranium fuel to Taiwan do not prohibit reprocessing. 

August 30 — The Republic of China denied that it has been secretly 
reprocessing spent uranium fuel. 

August 30 — The Soviet newspaper Pravda warned of a growing danger of 
war in the Middle East, criticized Egypt for worsening relations with 
Libya, and called for a withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon. 

September 2 — Nikolai A. Tikhonov was named First Deputy Chairman of 
the Soviet Council of Ministers. Some Western observers speculated that 
the promotion of Tikhonov was related to Chairman Kosygin's reported 
ill health. 

September 6 — A Soviet air force pilot flew a Mig-25 jet fighter to Japan 
and asked for political asylum in the United States. The defection gave 
Western intelligence experts access to the most advanced Soviet plane 
of its type. 

September 7 — The Japanese Defense Agency announced that it will give top 
priority to improving Japan's radar early warning system in the next 
defense buildup program beginning April 1, 1977. 

September 9 — Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-tung died at 
the age of 82 of an undisclosed illness. The Communist Party Commit- 
tee called for a week of mourning, during which Mao's remains would 
be on view in the Great Hall of the People in Peking. 

September 9 — President Ford issued a statement on the death of Chairman 
Mao Tse-tung which read in part; "Americans will remember that it was 



105 



under Chairman Mao that China moved together with the United States 
to end a generation of hostility and to launch a new £ind more positive 
era in relations between our two countries. I am confident that the trend 
of improved relations between the People's Republic of China and the 
United States, which Chairman Mao helped create, will continue to 
contribute to world peace and stability." 

September 9 — Secretary Kissinger predicted that the main lines of Chinese 
policy towards the United States and the Soviet Union will not change 
as a result of the death of Mao. 

September 9 — The Soviet media reported the death of Chinese leader Mao 
Tse-tung without commentary. 

September 10 — Soviet pilot Viktor Belenko, who defected to Japan in a 
Mig-25, was flown to the United States where he had requested political 
asylum, amid Soviet demands that both the pilot and the plane be re- 
turned to the Soviet Union by Japan. 

September 13 — Representatives of foreign countries paid their last respects 
to Chairman Mao Tse-tung's remains in the Great Hall of the People in 
Peking. The foreign groups included the U.S. liaison ofl&ce representation 
and a party of 11 Americans led by former U.S. Defense Secretary 
Schlesinger. Schlesinger's party was greeted by Premier Hua Kuo-feng 
and other members of the Chinese leadership. 

September IS — Solemn mass memorial meetings observing the death of 
Chairman Mao Tse-tung were held throughout China. 

September 20 — The Soviet communique released after a three hour meeting 
between Leonid Brezhnev and Averell Harriman stressed Brezhnev's 
interest in the continued expansion of Soviet-American relations. In an 
interview following the meeting, Harriman indicated that the Soviet 
leader was concerned over the anti-detente rhetoric of the U.S. election 
campaign. 

September 22 — The Soviet Union charged that Japan has aggravated rela- 
tions between the two countries by forcibly handing over to the United 
States a Russian defector Air Force officer. 

September 22 — Taiwan agreed to stop all activities related to reprocessing 
of nuclear fuel. State Department officials stated in hearings before the 
Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Arms Control. Assistant 
Secretary of State Arthur W. Hummel, Jr., testified that Taiwan has the 
economic and scientific base from which to develop nuclear weapons or a 
nuclear explosive device should they choose to do so. 

September 24 — Japanese Defense authorities, with assistance from 
American military specialists, dismantled and transferred to a military 
airfield the Soviet Mig-25 aircraft landed in northern Japan by a defect- 
ing Soviet pilot. Reportedly, a joint team of Japanese and United States 
Air Force combat aviation experts spent the past 10 days dismantling the 
Mig-25. 

September 26 — The Chinese Communist Party indicated for the first time 
since Mao Tse-tung's death that China's anti-Soviet policy will continue. 
The Red Flag magazine carried an article mentioning Mao's reference 
to the Soviet Union as a "paper tiger." 



106 



September 26 — The New China News Agency announced that China 
detonated its second nuclear bomb this year in response to the Party's 
call to turn "grief into strength" following Mao's death. 

September 27 — Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld said at a press 
conference that the Soviet Union is "militarily strong and busier" than 
ever before. He said that the Soviet military buildup went beyond what 
was needed to deter nuclear war but added that there was no need to 
change the current U.S. defense budget. 

September 27 — Japanese Prime Minister Takeo Miko said in Tokyo that he 
saw "no diflBculty fundamentally" in concluding a peace and friendship 
treaty with China containing a controversial clause against hegemony 
by a third power. 

September 28 — In Peking, Premier Hua Kuo-feng had a friendly con- 
versation with James Schlesinger, former U.S. Secretary of Defense, 
and members of Mr. Schlesinger's party. 

September 28 — Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko in a speech 
to the U.N. General Assembly, stressed the need for nuclear disarma- 
ment. He defended the policy of detente with the United States, called 
for a settlement of the Middle East crisis and an end to the civil war in 
Lebanon, and scored the U.S. peace initiative in South Africa. 

September 29 — Secretary of State Kissinger and Soviet Foreign Minister 
Gromyko held talks in New York. According to press accounts, the 
major topic was strategic arms limitation. 

September 29 — It was announced in Tokyo that Japan and the Soviet 
Union had agreed to start talks on the return of the Mig-25 aircraft. 

September 29 — ^The Japanese Foreign Ministry issued a point-by-point 
refutation of the Soviet allegation that Lieutenant Belenko had not 
defected by his own free will. 

September 29 — The Chinese People's Liberation Army announced that in 
honor of the 27th anniversary of the People's Republic of China, shell- 
ing of the Quemoys and other islands would be suspended on October 
1st and 3d. 

September 29 — After a 23-day tour of China, including Sinkiang, Inner 
Mongolia, Tibet, and Kweilin, former Defense Secretary Schlesinger 
reportedly was seriously concerned about apparent weaknesses in 
Chinese defense capabilities. 

September 30 — In an official message marking the 27th anniversary of 
the People's Republic of China, the Soviet Union called for the normal- 
ization of Sino-Soviet relations. 

September 30 — Speaking before the U.N. General Assembly, Secretary of 
State Kissinger reaffirmed the policy of detente but attacked the Soviet 
Union for allegedly continuing its arms buildup, intervening in local 
conflicts, and stirring racial hatreds in southern Africa. 

October 1 — An article in Pravda called for an improvement in Sino-Soviet 
relations, stressing that the Soviet Union had neither territorial, eco- 
nomic, or other grievances against China. 

October 1 — President Ford met with Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko 
in Washington to discuss major problems in international relations, 
including the Middle East and SALT negotiations. 



107 



October 5 — In an address to the U.N. General Assembly, Chinese Foreign 
Minister Chiao Kuan-hua reiterated past Chinese positions including 
an attack on the Soviet Union which Chiao called the "most dangerous 
source of war today." 

October 5 — A Chinese nuclear blast of September 26 caused radioactive 
fallout in parts of the United States, but the fallout was not expected 
to present a public health hazard, according to EPA and ERDA 
officials. 

October 6 — The position of Eastern Europe became a campaign issue 
during the Presidential foreign policy debate when President Ford 
asserted that there was no Soviet domination of East European coun- 
tries such as Poland. 

October 8 — Secretary Kissinger met for 3 hours in New York City with 
Chinese Foreign Minister Chao Kuan-hua and discussed, among other 
topics, the future of U.S. relations with Taiwan. 

October 8 — In Peking the New China News Agency identified Hua Kuo- 
feng as head of the Central Committee Politburo, and announced that 
Hua would be supervisor of the collection and verification of Mao Tse- 
tung's writings and statements. 

October 9 — Chinese Vice Premier Li Hsien-nien met for 2 hours in Peking 
with Senators Mike Mansfield and John Glenn and their party. The 
Mansfield party of 11 persons toured China from September 21- 
October 12. 

October 9 — Wall posters in Peking proclaimed that Premier Hua Kuo- 
feng has succeeded Mao Tse-tung as chairman of the Chinese Com- 
munist Party. 

October 10 — Reporting on his visit to China, former Defense Secretary 
Schlesinger, in an interview in U.S. News and World Report, said a 
Soviet attack on China could be far more costly to the Soviets than 
any conceivable gain. 

October 12 — In Peking, a PRC Foreign Ministry spokesman confirmed offi- 
cially that Premier Hua Kuo-feng had succeeded Mao Tse-tung as 
Chairman of the Communist Party and its Military Commission. 

October 12 — Chiang Ching, Mao's widow, and three other radical members 
of the Chinese Politburo, Wang Hung-wen, Chang Chun-chiao, and Yao 
Wen-yuan, have been under arrest since October 7, charged with plot- 
ting a coup d'etat, according to sources in Peking. 

October 14 — Victor Louis, a Soviet citizen who publishes in the Western 
press, said in an article published in Paris, that unless the PRC adopts 
a more conciliatory attitude toward Moscow within 1 month it will 
face an "irreversible decision" by Soviet leaders. 

October 15 — The Soviet newspaper Pravda condemned both President 
Ford and Governor Carter for their campaign rhetoric on the Soviet 
Union and Eastern Europe. 

October 18 — Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin made his first public ap- 
pearance in almost 3 months, following unconfirmed reports that he had 
suffered a heart attack or stroke. 



108 



October 19 — A group of Soviet Jewish dissidents charged that they were 
beaten by plainclothes police after a sit-in at a Supreme Soviet build- 
ing to protest the government's refusal to grant them exist visas. 

October 22 — The New China News Agency announced that Chiang Ching, 
Wang Hung-wen, Chang Chun-chiao, and Yao Wen-yuan have been 
"liquidated", and confirmed that Premier Hua Kuo-feng has been ap- 
pointed Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party and its Military 
Commission. 

October 24 — Secretary Kissinger reiterated his earlier statements that 
Soviet military intervention in China would have grave military 
consequences. 

October 25 — Soviet leader Brezhnev delivered a speech to the Central Com- 
mittee of the Soviet Communist Party. He stated that the policy of im- 
proving bilateral relations with the United States would continue re- 
gardless of the outcome of the American elections. 

October 26 — The New China News Agency stated that the purge of four 
radical leaders has cleared the way for a more rapid development of 
the Chinese economy. 

October 26 — Christopher H. Phillips, president of the National Council 
for United States-China trade, said that Peking's purge of four lead- 
ing radicals was an entirely positive move as far as Chinese relations 
with the rest of the world was concerned. 

October 27 — The Soviet Five-Year Plan for 1976-80 and the annual plan 
and budget for 1977 were endorsed at a session of the Supreme Soviet. 
Soviet leaders expressed the hope that the plans would narrow the 
economic gap with the United States. 

October 28 — The Soviet Union notified Japan that it will not participate 
in the Japanese-Soviet Economic Committee Conference scheduled for 
late November in Tokyo, reportedly because of the Mig-25 incident. 

October 28 — China rejected messages from the Soviet Communist Party 
and other Eastern Communist Parties congratulating Hua Kuo-feng 
on his appointment as Chairman. Peking has no party-to-party relations 
with these countries. 

October 29 — Secretary of State Kissinger warned the Soviet Union against 
interfering with the Geneva talks aimed at achieving majority rule in 
Rhodesia. 

October 29 — The U.S. State Department announced that it will allow the 
private sale of sophisticated Cyber 172 computers and support systems 
to China and the Soviet Union. 

October 29 — East German Communist Party leader Erich Honecker was 
named chief of state by the parliament of the German Democratic Re- 
public. 

October 30 — The Chinese Communist Party Central Committee, headed by 
Hua Kuo-feng, announced that Chang Chun-chiao, Yao Wen-yuan, and 
Wang Hung-wen were dismissed from their top party and administra- 
tive posts in Shanghai, and that they were replaced by two members 
of the leadership from Peking, Su Chen-hua and Ni Chih-fu, and a 
senior official from Nanking, Peng Chung. 



109 



November 1 — Albanian leader, Enver Hoxha, suggested in an address at 
the Albanian Communist Party's 7th congress in Tirana, that his nation 
was heading toward less reliance on ideological and material support 
from China. 

November 3 — Foreign Minister Ismail Fahmi of Egypt and Foreign Minister 
Andrei Gromyko began talks in Sofia, Bulgaria, aimed at improving 
relations between the Soviet Union and Egypt. 

November 6 — In Moscow, at the annual commemoration of the Bolshevik 
Revolution, Fyoder Kulakov, Soviet Politburo member, refrained from 
any attack on China in his address; and the Chinese diplomats did not 
walk out as they have every year for the past 10 years. 

November 7 — The Soviet Union celebrated the 59th anniversary of the 
Bolshevik Revolution with parades and speeches endorsing the policy 
of detente. 

November 11 — Viktor G. Afanasyev, editor of the Soviet Communist Party 
newspaper Pravda, said in New York that he detected signs of an im- 
provement in Soviet-Chinese relations. 

November 12 — After careful inspection by Japanese and American techni- 
cians, the Soviet Mig-25 which was flown into Japan by a Soviet defector 
in September, was shipped back to the U.S.S.R. in 13 crates. 

November 12 — Senator Mike Mansfield, who recently returned from a 3- 
week tour of China, said although he wasn't aware of any arms request 
from Peking to the United States, he thought the United States should 
sell arms to the People's Republic of China just as it does to Yugoslavia 
and Iran. 

November 15 — In a press conference. President-elect Jimmy Carter gave 
high priority to achieving further strategic arms limitations agreements 
with the Soviet Union. 

November 15 — In Peking, Vice Premier Li Hsien-nien, in a diplomatic 
banquet speech, said the Soviets were creating false impressions of relaxa- 
tion of Sino-Soviet relations, which Li dismissed as "wishful thinking 
and daydreaming." The Ambassador of the Soviet Union and seven 
Soviet-bloc countries walked out of the banquet. 

November 15 — Soviet leader Brezhnev began an official visit to Yugoslavia. 
During meetings with Yugoslav leaders, he gave assurance that the 
Soviet Union would continue to respect Yugoslavia's sovereignty and 
independence after President Tito. 

November 15 — Groundbreaking began in Tien An Men square in prepara- 
tion for a mausoleum honoring Mao Tse-tung. On November 25, Chair- 
man Hua Kuo-feng laid the foundation stone. 

November 17 — The U.S. Embassy in Moscow disclosed that the Soviet 
Union had expelled the U.S. political counselor in Moscow. The action 
was in apparent retaliation for the earlier expulsion by the United States 
of a Soviet official. 

November 17 — China detonated a nuclear explosion of about 4 megatons, 
the largest ever detected from the People's Republic of China. 

November 21 — In a report of his sixth trip to China, September 21-Octo- 
ber 12, Senator Mike Mansfield recommended that the United States 



81-813 - 77 -8 



110 



sever its defense treaty with Taiwan and promptly grant full diplomatic 
recognition to the People's Republic of China. 

ISovemher 23 — There were reports of unrest in at least five provinces — 
Fukien, Hupei, Kiangsi, Hunan, and Honan — since the "radicals" arrest 
in early October. In Fukien, party officials dispatched army units to 
restore order in cities, schools, factories, and mines. 

November 24 — The New York Times reported that Defense Department offi- 
cials were concerned over the Soviet program to develop "hunter-killer" 
satellites for destroying other satellites. At the same time, officials denied 
press claims that the Soviet Union had destroyed any American satellites. 

November 24 — Soviet leader Brezhnev ended talks with Romanian Presi- 
dent Ceaucescu. The two leaders pledged to expand bilateral coopera- 
tion. Experts did not view the meeting as a sign of a Romanian shift from 
its relative independence. 

November 26 — Chiao Kuan-hua, China's Foreign Minister, has not ap- 
peared in public since November II after having returned from the 
U.N. General Assembly. Sources in Peking say that Chiao was "too close 
to the radical four." 

November 27 — After an 18-month break in the Sino-Soviet border talks, 
the chief Soviet negotiator, Leonard F. Ilyichev, returned to Peking to 
discuss reopening the talks, and reportedly was received warmly. 

November 28 — In an editorial in the People's Daily, the Peking leadership 
urged restraint in the "Gang of Four" drive, by warning that people 
who had made mistakes should be cured not killed. 

December 2 — Peking announced the appointment of Huang Hua, former 
ambassador to the United Nations, as foreign minister, replacing the 
ousted Chiao Kuan-hua. 

December 2 — Spokesmen for President-elect Jimmy Carter disclosed that 
Soviet leader Brezhnev conveyed his personal assurance that the Soviet 
Union intends to go out of its way to avoid any crisis during the early 
stages of the new administration. 

December 8 — The New China News Agency published an article by the 
army general staff which said the "gang of four" tried to sabotage the 
education for preparedness against war and modernization of the army. 

December 8 — The Washington Post reported that the Soviet union had 
agreed to sell 200 tons of heavy water to India for use in its nuclear 
program. 

December 8 — NATO defense ministers meeting in Brussels warned that it 
would take a major Western effort to offset the growing offensive strength 
of Warsaw Treaty Organization forces in Europe. 

December 10 — According to provincial broadcasts, violent factional fight- 
ing has occurred in Wuhan, China's most important industrial center. 

December 10 — The Soviet Union extended its territorial waters to 200 
miles. 

December 17 — The antiradical drive in China has reportedly evolved into 
a purge throughout many provinces, involving the dismissal of thousands 
of officials. 



Ill 



December 17 — The Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion in Geneva said that total figures on Jewish emigration from the 
Soviet Union in 1976 would exceed 14,000 an increase of about 500 
over 1975. Half of the emigrants were said to have gone to Israel and the 
rest mainly to the United States and Canada. 

December 18 — In a prisoner exchange achieved with U.S. mediation, the 
Soviet Union freed dissident Vladimi Bukovsky in return for the release 
of Chilean Communist leader Luis Corvalan Lepe. The exchange took 
place in Switzerland. 

December 20 — An article in the People s Daily accused the radicals of 
creating disorders in Paoting, a city located about 100 miles from 
Peking, as part of an attempt to seize power. 

December 22 — Secretary of State-designate Cyrus Vance met with Soviet 
dissident Andrei Amalrik, who urged the new administration to do more 
to encourage democratization in the Soviet Union. 

December 23 — Takeo Fukuda, head of the ruling Liberal Democratic 
Party, was elected prime minister of Japan by a one-vote margin. 
Fukuda named lichiro Hatoyama, a former vice finance minister, as 
foreign minister. He is expected to carry on Japan's pro-American 
j>olicy. 

December 25 — In a speech delivered before a national conference on agri- 
culture, Chairman Hua Kuo-feng said that the central task for 1977 is to 
deepen the mass movement to expose and criticize the "gang of four;" 
the second task is to strengthen party building. 

December 26 — The New York Times quoted CIA Director George Bush 
on the new national estimate of Soviet strategic objectives, as saying that 
*'there are some worrisome signs" which will be adequately reflected in 
the assessment. 

December 27 — President-elect Jimmy Carter told reporters that he would 
probably meet with Soviet leader Brezhnev before September 1977 to 
discuss a new strategic arms limitation agreement and other issues. 

December 27 — Chairman Hua Kuo-feng announced that foreign assistance 
may be necessary to meet China's agricultural goals. 

December 29 — According to the Soviet Tass news agency, Soviet leader 
Brezhnev welcomed President-elect Carter's wish to hold a Soviet-Ameri- 
can summit meeting in 1977. 

December 29 — Unrest in Paoting, which had erupted into armed conflict, 
reportedly was part of a widespread pattern of disorder in China over 
the past year and was the major reason for the arrest of the "gang of 
four." This information is based on a document issued in Peking in 
October 1976, which described the violence which began in early 1976. 

December 30 — Chinese army units had reportedly reestablished public 
order in Paoting. 



SOUTHERN AFRICA^ 



January 1 — The Washington Post reported that South Africa's Prime Min- 
ister John Vorster had made his first open appeal for the West to get 
directly involved in the Angolan civil war. 

January 2 — ^The Chn-stian Science Monitor reported that die Central Intel- 
ligence Agency (CIA) was indirectly recruiting and training American 
ex-servicemen to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation 
of Angola (MPLA) via aid to Zaire and Angola's pro-West factions. It 
was also reported that some 300 Americans were already operating in 
Angola and that a similar number would be ready to go as soon as the 
CIA could obtain further funds. 

Jcmuary 6 — President Ford called for a cease-fire in Angola and rejected 
the idea that withholding U.S. grain from the Soviet Union would be 
an effective response to Russian activities in Angola, 

January 6 — ^Moscow dashed Western hopes that it would support a pullout 
of all foreign troops in Angola when an Izvestia editorial defended Soviet 
aid to the MPLA and called the MPLA the only legitimate government 
in Angola. 

January 6 — Senator John V. Tunney charged that American pilots were 
airlifting weapons from Zaire into Angola on U.S.-built C-130 cargo 
planes. 

January 7 — State D^artment spokesman Robert Funseth denied reports 
that the United States was .coordinating its strategy in Angola with 
South Africa. 

January S — White House Press Secretary Ron Nessen denied Senator John 
V. Tunney's allegation that American pilots had flown weapons into 
Angola. 

January lO-^lS — An Organization of African Unity (OAU) summit con- 
ference of African chiefs of state was held in Addis Ababa, but a 22-to-22 
tie vote with two abstentions (Ethiopia and Uganda) prevented the 
organization from recognizing the MPLA as Angola's legitimate 
government. 

January 19 — According to evidence obtained by the House Select Commit- 
tee on Intelligence, the CIA had systematically undervalued, in some 
cases by half, the military equipment supplied to warring factions in 
Angola, the effect of which was an understatement of the value of Ameri- 
can aid. 

January 20—23 — Secretary of State Kissinger met with Soviet Premier 

Leonid Brezhnev to break the stalemate in the SALT talks and the 
American-Soviet conflict over Angola. 

January 27 — The Washington Post reported that 200 black Vietnam war 
veterans in the Washington area were organizing to go to Angola and 
fight on the side of the U.S.-backed forces there. 

* Prepared by Susan M. Mowle, Foreign Affairs Analyst 

(113) 



114 



January 27 — The House of Representatives voted 323 to 99 in favor of the 
Senate's amendment to the defense appropriations bill which would ban 
military aid to Angola. 

January 28 — A Defense Department report showed that currently the 
MPLA was being provided with 170 advisers and $108 million in 
military aid by the Soviet Union; in addition, 11,400 troops and $70 
million in military aid were being provided by Cuba. 

January 29 — The Financial Times: President Kenneth Kuanda of Zambia 
declared a full state of emergency because of internal economic deterior- 
ation and the military threat from Angola. 

January 29 — In testimony before the Senate Subcommittee on African 
Affairs of the Foreign Relations Committee, Secretary of State Kissin- 
ger stated that a possibility existed that United States funds were being 
used "indirectly" to recruit American and foreign mercenaries for pro- 
Western forces in Angola. He also said that the Administration "is now 
seriously considering overt financial aid" to pro-Western forces. 

January 30 — The Washington Post reported estimates of South African 
forces in Angola to be between 1,500 and 4,500. 

January 30 — The U.N. Security Council unanimously accepted a resolution 
calling on South Africa to allow free elections in Namibia under U.N. 
supervision and control. 

February 2 — The White House and State Department issued statements 
denying reports that the United States was financing the recruitment in 
Britain or elsewhere of mercenaries to fight with Western-backed forces 
in Angola. 

February 3 — The South African Defense Minister confirmed that South 
Africa was holding a buffer zone across southern Angola up to 50 miles 
deep which was patrolled by 4,000-5,000 troops who would remain in 
Angola until a new Angolan Government assures Pretoria that it would 
not provide bases for terrorists striking across the border into Namibia 
(South-West Africa). 

February 3 — President Mobutu announced he was banning the use of 
Zaire for the transit of mercenaries bound for the Angolan civil war. 

February 11 — The Organization of African Unity recognized the MPLA 
as the legitimate government of Angola. 

February 12 — At a press conference. Secretary of State Kissinger vir- 
tually abandoned the prospect he had raised that the Ford administration 
might seek "overt aid" for anti-Communist forces in Angola after 
Congress blocked further covert aid. He also raised the U.S. estimates of 
Soviet aid to the MPLA to $300 million with $100 million sent in 
January 1976. 

February 15 — CIA Director George Bush declined to rule out the possi- 
bility that American intelligence agencies were continuing financial or 
other support to anti-Communist forces fighting in Angola. 

February 17 — Columnist Jack Anderson reported the MPLA leaders had 
sent a secret message to Secretary of State Kissinger, delivered by 
aides to Senator John Tunney, requesting talks with the United States. 



115 



February 17 — France became the first West European nation to recognize 
the MPLA. 

February 20 — A State Department official stated that Rhodesia's white 
minority government should start to negotiate "realistically" with black 
nationalists and warned that there would be no United States or British 
intervention on the side of the white regime if full-scale fighting broke 
out. 

February 21 — It was reported that the administration had given its approval 
to the Gulf Corp. and the Boeing Co. to resume business transactions with 
the MPLA government in Luanda. 

February 23 — The Foreign Ministers of the Common Market issued an 
offer of economic and political cooperation to Angola. (The nine com- 
munity governments had separately recognized the MPLA last week.) 

February 28 — Zaire, which had backed a rival nationalist faction in the 
Angolan civil war, established diplomatic relations with the MPLA. 

March 4 — President Machel of Mozambique announced a state of war 
against what he termed the "racist regime" of Rhodesian Prime Min- 
ister Ian Smith. His declaration called for a blockade of Rhodesia, 
cutting off of communications and seizing Rhodesian Government 
property within Mozambique. 

March 4 — Secretary of State Kissinger warned Cuba to act with "great 
circumspection" in southern Africa and stated that U.S. actions cannot 
always be deduced by what we did in Angola. He said that any Cuban 
interference in the dispute between white-ruled Rhodesia and Mozam- 
bique would provoke a crisis. He also stated that the United States 
is in favor of majority rule in Rhodesia and that the United States would 
use its influence in that direction, adding that it was perhaps the last 
opportunity for the white government to negotiate a peaceful transition 
to majority rule with black nationalists. 

March 6 — According to the Washington Post, certain Western intelligence 
sources reported that Cuban troops and Soviet tanks landed in Mozam- 
bique to help black Rhodesian guerrillas fight the white minority gov- 
ernment of Ian Smith. 

March 7 — Angola's new government promised Namibian guerrilla forces 
material assistance in their efforts to seek independence from South 
Africa, according to the Washington Post. 

March 13 — The New York Times rej>orted that the Ford administration had 
decided to continue the 12-year ban on loans to South Africa despite 
heavy pressure by American business interests and a letter of protest 
from 41 Members of Congress. 

March 15 — The administration indicated that it had postponed three sched- 
uled cabinet-level meetings of joint Soviet- American commissions on 
trade, housing, and energy, as a signal of U.S. concern over Soviet 
activities in Angola. 

March 19 — Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs William Schau- 
fele stated in testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 
that the United States was prepared to help Mozambique offset the losses 
it was incurring by shutting its borders to the white regime in Rhodesia. 



116 



March 22 — The Washington Star reported that the Ford administration has 
resolved to meet any new military commitment of the 12,000 Cuban 
troops in Africa with a swift and vigorous response against Cuba itself. 

March 23 — Secretary of State Kissinger stated in Dallas that the United 
States will not be lured into support for white-ruled Rhodesia by Amer- 
ican opposition to "massive Soviet and Cuban military intervention in 
Africa." However, he again reiterated that "the United States will not 
accept further Cuban military interventions abroad." 

March 25 — Rhodesia expressed thanks to Secretary of State Kissinger for 
his warning to Cuba against possible intervention in the conflict between 
Rhodesia's white minority government and African nationalists. 

March 27 — South African troops completed their withdrawal from southern 
Angola pulling back into Namibia (South-West Africa). According to 
reports, about 1,600 Angolan refugees withdrew with the troops. 

March 31 — The United Nations Security Council approved a resolution 
which denounced South Africa's aggression against Angola and called 
on the South African Government to pay compensation to Angola for 
damages. The vote was 9-0 and the United States, France, Great Britain, 
Italy, and Japan abstained while China did not participate. During the 
debate, U.S. Ambassador Scranton demanded an "immediate and com- 
plete withdrawal" of the 13,000-man Cuban expeditionary force in 
Angola. Representatives of the abstaining nations explained that they 
did so because the resolutions denounced only the South African inter- 
vention, not the much greater Soviet-Cuban involvement. 

April 1 — The Angolan Government announced that 13 captured mercenaries, 
including 3 Americans, would be tried by a 30-member "international 
free jury." 

April 4 — The Baltimore Sun reported that the Government of Angola invited 
the Gulf Oil Corp. to resume oil production there, and the firm said it 
would do so as soon as possible. 

April 6 — The United States voted in favor of a U.N. Security Council reso- 
lution which broadened the sanctions against Rhodesia by barring in- 
surance and commercial licensing operations benefiting that country. 

April 23 through May 7 — Secretary of State Henry Kissinger conducted 
his first tour of southern Africa, stopping in Zaire, Zambia, Tanzania, 
and Kenya. His policy speech in Lusaka, Zambia, on April 27 put the 
United States firmly in support of majority rule in Rhodesia, inde- 
pendence for Namibia and racial justice in South Africa. As part of a 
10-point Rhodesia policy, the Secretary called for repeal of the Byrd 
amendment, enforcement of U.N. sanctions against Rhodesia, aid to 
opponents of the Smith regime, and an end to American travel to 
Rhodesia. 

April 28 — Secretary of State Kissinger offered the good oflSces of the United 
States in possible negotiations to secure swift black majority rule in 
Rhodesia. 

April 30 — The first four blacks to be permitted into the white Rhodesian 
government were sworn in by Prime Minister Ian Smith. Smith's "new 
initiative" has been criticized by the United States and black African 
nations as an insignificant gesture. 



117 



April 30 — Angolan President Agostinho Neto implied for the first time in 
a speech that Cuban troops stationed in Angola may soon begin their 
withdrawal. 

April 30 — Secretary of State Kissinger said that the United States would 
be willing to normalize relations with Angola provided the 15,000 Cuban 
troops were withdrawn. 

May 4 — The Angolan Government announced that 13 mercenaries, including 
3 Americans captured during the civil war, would go on trial on June 8, 
1976, before an Angolan "peoples revolutionary tribunal" instead of an 
international jury as previously announced. 

May 7 — Angolan President Agostinho Neto stated that there were still some 
"trouble spots" along the country's northern and southern borders and 
for the first time indirectly accused both Zaire and South Africa of con- 
tinuing to back armed incursions into Angola. 

May 12 — ^The Washington Post reported that the United States had asked 
Angola to delay its application for U.N. membership and that the United 
States would veto any application unless Angola gave a "clear signal" 
that the thousands of Cuban troops there would depart. 

May 13 — The Washingon Post reported that key African delegations at the 
United Nations had decided not to press for an immediate vote in the 
Security Council on Angola's application for U.N. membership and to 
go along with the Ford administration's request for a delay until after 
the U.S. primaries are over. 

May 15 — General Electric Co. asked the Federal Government for a license 
to export to South Africa two huge atomic powerplants worth an esti- 
mated $2 billion, according to the Washington Post. 

May 18 — South African Prime Minister John Vorster announced that he 
would accept an invitation to meet with President Ford if it is ofFered. 

May 19 — Angola broke diplomatic relations with Portugal. 

May 20 — Prime Minister Ian Smith said that he was very ready to meet 
with President Ford to discuss the Rhodesian crisis and that if President 
Ford was no longer willing to do so it was because of pressure from 
Great Britain. 

May 20 — Cuban Deputy Premier Carlos Rafael Rodriguez said that Cuba 
had no intention of sending troops to assist black nationalist forces in 
Rhodesia as it did in Angola. 

May 21 — According to the Washington Star, the State Department decided 
to support General Electric's request to sell two atomic powerplants and 
1.4 million pounds of enriched uranium fuel to South Africa. 

May 24 — Angolan President Agostinho Neto asserted that his country would 
be politically independent regardless of aid received from other nations. 

May 25 — Secretary of State Kissinger stated that Cuban Prime Minister 
Fidel Castro had written a letter to Swedish Prime Minister Palme in 
which he asserted that Cuba had begun or would soon begin withdraw- 
ing 200 military personnel a week from Angola and will have cut its 
forces there by half by the end of 1976. 

May 28 — The New York Times reported that oflBcials who had seen the mes- 
sage Fidel Castro sent to Swedish Prime Minister Palme report that it 



118 



stated that Cuba would reduce its forces in Angola to about 5,000 troops 
by the end of 1976, and that the rest would be withdrawn over the fol- 
lowing 6 months. 

May 29 — According to the New York Times, Zambian President Kaunda 
announced that his government would allow black nationalist guerrillas 
to use Zambian territory for attacks against white-governed Rhodesia. 

May 29 — South Africa reversed itself and awarded to France instead of to 
the United States and the Netherlands a $1 billion contract for its first 
nuclear powerplant. 

May 30 — The Washington Post reported that the Angolan Government had 
appealed to the international community for assistance in dealing with 
the needs of an estimated 700,000 refugees from the colonial war against 
Portugal as well as the civil war which just ended. 

May 31 — Following a visit by Angolan Prime Minister Lopo do Nascimento 
to the U.S.S.R., the Soviet Union agreed to provide Angola with further 
military, economic, educational, and medical aid. 

June 2 — Republican Presidential candidate Ronald Reagan said at a lunch- 
eon with the Sacramento Press Club that he might consider sending a 
token U.S. force to Rhodesia, if asked, to help preserve the peace and 
prevent bloodshed during the transfer of control to the black majority. 
(Reagan later asserted that he had responded to a hypothetical question 
and was only referring to a plan to preserve the peace, not necessarily 
calling for troops.) 

June 2 — The House approved a foreign aid bill that includes an $85 mil- 
lion package to southern Africa, but it stipulated that no funds be sent 
to Mozambique. 

June 4 — The State Department announced that Secretary of State Henry 
Kissinger and South African Prime Minister John Vorster would meet 
in West Germany in late June to discuss Rhodesia and other problems 
in South Africa. 

June 11 — At a news conference in Mexico City, Secretary of State Kis- 
singer stated that he had no "conclusive confirmation" that Cuba was 
withdrawing its troops from Angola. 

June 11 — The Angolan Government requested the death penalty for three 
Americans and 10 other prisoners accused of mercenary activities as 
their trial began in Luanda. 

June 13 — The New York Times reported that Rhodesian jets struck an army 
post in Mozambique; Rhodesian authorities announced that the strike 
was in retaliation for a mortar and rocket barrage from Mozambique 
and was to serve as a warning to Zambia not to aid guerrillas. 

June 13 — The New York Times reported that the defeated National Union 
for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) had resumed guerrilla 
activity along the Benguela railroad line. 

June 14 — Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith announced that if Presi- 
dent Kuanda of Zambia allowed guerrillas to invade Rhodesia from 
bases on his territory, Zambia would feel the consequences. 

June 14 — A government-appointed commission in Rhodesia released a re- 
port, endorsed by Prime Minister Ian Smith, that recommended several 



119 



moves towards racial equality though it stopped short of asking for 
repeal of voting qualifications, the major obstacle to black majority 
rule. 

June 14 — The Senate approved a $9.4 billion foreign aid bill but reduced 
the administration's request for aid to Zaire and Zambia from $30 mil- 
lion each to $25 million each and eliminated the $25 million contin- 
gency fund for southern Africa. 

June 16 — A student demonstration near Johannesburg, South Africa, pro- 
testing the teaching of Afrikaans, erupted into a 5-day race riot leaving 
176 dead and 1,139 wounded. (Afrikaans is the language of the white 
South Africans of Dutch descent who created the policy of apartheid.) 

June 17 — A House-Senate conference agreed to provide $27.5 million each 
to Zaire and Zambia and to retain a $20 million fund designed to aid 
nations harmed by participation in the economic boycott of white-ruled 
Rhodesia. The amendment barring the use of funds for Mozambique was 
dropped, though the release of an American missionary by Mozambique 
was added as a prerequisite for United States aid. 

June 20 — According to the New York Times, Defense Secretary Donald 
Rumsfeld negotiated an arms agreement with Zaire for sophisticated 
weapons to meet the potential threat of instability along the Angolan 
border. 

June 22 — President John J. Wrathall of Rhodesia charged that the ter- 
rorism plaguing his country was encouraged by the attitudes of the 
British and United States Governments. 

June 23 — Secretary of State Kissinger met with John Vorster, Prime Min- 
ister of South Africa, for 2 days in Germany. The Secretary avoided 
reporting details of the outcome of the meeting and only said that "a 
process is in motion to produce a negotiated solution and avoid a racial 
war in southern Africa." 

June 23 — The United States vetoed Angela's application for United Nations 
membership on the grounds of its objection to the continuing presence 
of Cuban troops in the newly independent state. 

June 28 — An Angolan judge imposed the death penalty on 1 of the 3 Amer- 
icans and 3 of the 10 Englishmen on trial for mercenary activities during 
the recent civil war, while sentencing the others to long prison terms. 

June 30 — The Washington Post reported that several Members of Congress 
are exploring allegations that the Ford administration violated U.S. neu- 
trality law by allowing American veterans of Vietnam to serve as mer- 
cenaries in Angola. 

July 3 — The Washington Post reported that U.S. intelligence sources claimed 
to have received reports that Cuban leaders may be preparing to send sev- 
eral thousand troops from Angola to the Congo Republic. 

July 4 — According to the New York Times, Secretary of State Kissinger and 
Prime Minister John Vorster of South Africa are planning to meet again 
in August to accelerate their search for a political solution in Rhodesia. 

July 6 — A South African minister announced the annulment of the regula- 
tion stipulating that black pupils be instructed in the Afrikaans language 
(the ruling had set off 5 days of racial rioting during June) . 



120 



July 9 — The New York Times reported that Rhodesian guerrilla leaders 
announced that they will reject any proposals for a negotiated settlement 
of the Rhodesian conflict that do not provide for an immediate and 
unconditional transfer of power by the ruling white minority. 

July 10 — Four white mercenaries, including American Daniel Gearhart, 
were executed in Angola after President Agostinho Neto refused to com- 
mute their sentences. 

July 11 — The Baltimore Sun reported that according to the BBC, between 
20,000 and 25,000 Cuban troops who fought in the Angolan civil war 
are still in Angola — nearly double the figure estimated by the United 
States — and that they are entrenching themselves in positions of strategic 
importance. 

July 15 — Following the shooting of two white government officials, the South 
African government announced several severe measures aimed at pre- 
venting new outbreaks of racial violence, including the postponement of 
African school openings, the prohibition of all public gatherings and the 
implementation of preventive detention measures. 

July 16 — The Washington Post reported that the Soviet Union is disen- 
chanted with Angolan President Agostinho Neto and his foreign policy 
of nonalinement. 

July 20 — The New York Times reported that the United States and Great 
Britain are forming a joint policy designed to encourage a transfer to 
black majority rule in Rhodesia by insuring the white Rhodesians of 
financial aid and property guarantees when such a transfer is successfully 
negotiated. 

July 21 — South Africa announced that all black schools — closed since June 
because of racial rioting — will reopen despite a postponement caused by 
several violent outbursts during the past week. 

July 22 — The Washington Post reported that Rhodesia's black nationalist 
guerrillas opened two new fronts, therebv encircling the country with 
guerrilla attack ; an ambush in the northwest indicated a reopening of the 
Zambian border for terrorist activities, and several grenade attacks in 
central Salisbury pointed to the possibilities of urban terrorism. 

July 23 — Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith announced that although he 
rejected the three major suggestions for racial reform proposed by a gov- 
ernment appointed commission on racial discrimination, he approved 
of legislation to draft blacks into the armed services and asrreed to ease 
some public restrictions on blacks. 

July 26 — Durins: a visit bv Ans^olan President Agostinho Neto to Cuba, 
Prime Minister Fidel Castro announced that Cuban troops and arms 
would remain in Angola to protect the new nation from future invasions 
and that additional technical aid would be sent to hasten its economic 
development. 

July 27 — The Washington Post reported th?t there was no evidence of con- 
tinuing guerrilla resistance to the Angolan Government as claimed by 
the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (^UNITA) . 

July 27 — Chief Kaiser Matanzima, future prime minister of the Transkei in 
South Africa, ordered the arrest of nine Transk^inn leaders who opposed 
independence for the territory in October. The arrests took place imme- 



121 



diately prior to a special session of the legislative assembly which 
approved the constitution that will take effect at independence. 

July 29 — South Africa, in a reversal of policy toward the United Nations, 
accepted a proposal that a Security Council factfinding mission visit 
Namibia to investigate Zambian charges of South African aggression. 

July 29 — Black South African schoolchildren boycotted nearly all schooFs 
in the Soweto district while arsonists set fire to four more schools as 
unrest continued to spread in black townships. 

July 30-^The United States abstained in a United Nations Security Council 
resolution condemning South Africa for attacking a guerrilla camp in 
Zambia on July 11. South Africa denied the charges. 

August 2 — The New York Times reported that the U.S. Treasury and the 
United Nations were investigating charges issued by the United Church 
of Christ that the Mobil Oil Co. had circumvented trade restrictions with 
Rhodesia through an elaborate chain of bogus companies. 

August 2 — In a speech before the-^ational Urban League, Secretary 
Kissinger stated that "a volatile climate for violence exists in southern 
Africa," and ihaXjhe^ possibility of armed confrontation in Rhodesia 
or Namibia wasrgrowing. 

August 2 — It was reported that black leaders of the Urban Bantu Council 
in Soweto had presented the South African Government with a list of 
demands for racial reform, including recognition of black trade unions 
and legislation to raise wages and end job discrimination. 

August 5 — Racial strife in Soweto continued when police fired over the 
heads of an estimated 5,000 demojistrators, halting the second attempt in 
2 days by students to march out of the township to protest in front of 
the police headquarters in Johannesburg. (On August 4, police had 
clashed with a crowd estimated at 10,000. ) 

August 7 — President Valery Giscard d'Estaing announced that France had 
required guarantees from South Africa to insure that French nuclear 
power stations ordered by South Africa could not be used directly or 
indirectly for military purposes. 

August 7 — Rhodesia charged that a combined force of African nationalist 
guerrillas and Mozambican troops had crossed Rhodesia's border and 
attacked an army camp. 

August 9 — The House International Relations Subcommittee on Investiga- 
tions held a hearing on American recruitment of mercenaries to fight 
in Angola or Rhodesia. 

August 10 — The Rhodesian Government reported that its forces had crossed 
into Mozambique and had killed more than 300 black nationalists at a 
base camp used for launching attacks on Rhodesia. 

August 11 — The New York Times reported that the British Foreign Office, 
with the U.S. support, had begun a quiet diplomatic initiative to obtain 
a multiracial constitutional settlement in Namibia, and to insure that 
any settlement reflected the wishes of SWAPO. 

August 11 — Rhodesian nationalist guerrillas, or Mozambican troops sup- 
porting them, launched three simultaneous mortar attacks across the 
Rhodesian border. 



122 



August 12 — Racial strife continued in three African townships outside Cape 
Town, South Africa, where 27 people had been killed and almost 100 
injured during 2 days of disorders. 

August 12 — According to the Christian Science Monitor, South Africa ex- 
tended to the entire country an Internal Security Act measure that 
allowed the arrest of persons without charge or immediate trial. 
(Previously, the measure had applied only to the Transvaal.) 

August 12 — Botswana charged that Rhodesian troops had crossed its border 
to question at gunpoint villagers about the reported presence of armed 
Rhodesian guerrillas in the area. 

August 13 — Mozambique said that at least 618 persons had been killed by a 
Rhodesian raid earlier in the week on guerrilla camps in its territory. 

August 13 — The State Department welcomed a South African pledge of full 
support for U.S. efforts to promote a negotiated Rhodesian settlement, 
but cautioned that the difl&culties of a negotiated solution still remained. 

August 13 — South African Foreign Minister Hilgard Muller stated that 
South Africa would have to undertake reforms, in light of recent anti- 
Government rioting in black townships, but that such reforms would not 
affect the basic principles of apartheid or separate development. 

August 14 — According to the Baltimore Sun, South African security police 
arrested at least 50 black leaders in a crackdown on black nationalists 
suspected of fomenting recent racial upheavels, including Winnie Man- 
dela, wife of imprisoned nationalist Nelson Mandela. (According to the 
Washington Post, police also had arrested several white journalists and 
Roman Catholic officials in an effort to prevent further outbreaks of 
violence.) 

August 14 — In a major policy shift, South Africa announced that blacks 
living in urban areas would be allowed to buy homes without having to 
take out citizenship in tribal homelands. 

August 15 — The New York Times reported that the South African Govern- 
ment, critical of local newspaper coverage of the unrest in black town- 
ships had threatened to impose new restraints on the press. 

August 15 — It was reported that Mozambican regular troops had crossed 
Rhodesia's border and attacked a frontier post, killing two policemen. 

August 15 — Chief Gatsha Buthelezi, leader of South Africa's homeland of 
KwaZulu, said that racial violence will increase until South Africa's 
blacks are recognized as full citizens. 

August 18 — The New York Times reported that increased diplomatic and 
commercial ties between South Africa and Israel may include the sale 
of Israeli-manufactured military equipment, including gunboats, Kfir 
jet aircraft, and electronic equipment. 

August 18 — The Namibia Constitutional Conference announced plans for 
the establishment of multiracial government leading to independence 
from South Africa by December 31, 1978; the plan did not include a role 
for the South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) , or for U.N.- 
supervised elections, as demanded by a Security Council resolution of 
January 30, 1976. (The following day, SWAPO rejected the announced 
provisional date of independence for the territory, and the planned 
creation of an interim government. ) 



123 

August 20 — The U.N. High Commission for Refugees claimed an investi- 
gating team had concluded that the August 8 raid into Mozambique by 
Rhodesian forces had destroyed a U.N. refugee camp and not a guerrilla 
base as the Rhodesians had said. 

August 20 — South Africa announced an additional concession to urban 
blacks which will permit them to purchase homes in black townships with 
unrestricted title to the land, although government officials denied that 
there were going to be any fundamental changes in the current policy 
of separate development. 

August 21 — The Washington Post reported there were indications that 
Cuban troops were being withdrawn from Angola at a faster rate than 
the previously predicted 200-a-week schedule. 

August 22 — Seven South African Bantustan leaders issued a statement 
critical of the Government's apartheid policy, and demanded a meeting 
with Prime Minister John Vorster to discuss grievances behind recent 
riots in urban areas. 

August 23 — According to the Washington Post, an absenteeism rate as high 
as 80 percent was reported in Johannesburg, as black workers from 
Soweto complied with a call for a 3-day national strike. 

August 23 — South African Minister of Police James Kruger claimed he was 
misquoted in a statement attributed to him in which he was reported 
to have said that the black man in South Africa "knows his place and if 
not, I'll tell him his place." 

August 24 — The State Department stated that the latest move by South 
Africa to grant Namibia independence by the end of 1978 was a "step 
in the right direction," but that it did not go far enough to meet American 
and United Nations' demands. 

August 24 — The House International Relations Subcommittee on Interna- 
tional Organizations began the first of three hearings on Namibia, the 
United Nations, and U.S. policy toward Africa. 

August 24 — The New York Times reported that a new Rhodesian nationalist 
party — the Zimbabwe Reformed African National Council (ZRANC) — 
had been formed under the leadership of Robert Mugabe and that it 
was ready to reopen constitutional talks with the Smith government, 
provided guerrilla leaders were permitted to attend. 

August 25 — The New York Times reported that 14 black South Africans 
had been killed in Soweto during clashes between Zulu workers and 
militant black organizers seeking to enforce the 3-day labor strike. 

August 26 — The Rhodesian Government charged Roman Catholic Bishop 
Donal Lamont with failure to report the presence of nationalist guer- 
rillas — a charge which carried the maximum penalty of death. (On 
August 15, Bishop Lamont suggested that church officials might be 
justified in giving illegal assistance to anti-government guerrillas.) 

August 26 — U.N. Secretary General Kurt Waldheim declared that recent 
South African proposals for leading Namibia to independence in 1978 
fell short of U.N. requests, and said that South Africa must abandon its 
unilateral approach and recognize that cooperation with the U.N. is 
essential. 



1 



124 

I 

August 27 — South African Minister of Justice James Kruger announced he I 
would meet with urban black leaders to discuss anti-Government racial * 
strike that had cost at least 290 lives, but reaffirmed the South African j 
commitment to a policy of separate development. j 

August 27 — The Washington Post reported that the State Department was I 

investigating the possibilities of misrepresentation over the issuance of ! 

visas to members of a Rhodesian tennis team that played in the women's i 
Federation Cup matches in Philadelphia during August. 

August 27 — The New York Times reported that the United States has 

protested to U.N. Secretary General Waldheim over U.N. Commissioner ] 
for Namibia, Sean McBride's statements advocating punitive action i 
against South Africa for its failure to relinquish control of Namibia. 

August 28 — Zulu leader Chief Gatsha Buthelezi accused the South African 
police of having instigated the clashes between Zulu workers and anti- 
Government agitators in Soweto during which 21 blacks reportedly had 
been killed. | 

August 28 — According to the Washington Post, South Africa had detained 
more than 200 leaders of black community groups, church organiza- 
tions, and intellectural organizations since mid-July. 

August 30 — The State Department announced that Secretary Kissinger 

and South African Prime Minister Vorster would meet for the second | 

time in Zurich, Switzerland, September 4r-6, to discuss Rhodesia and j 

Namibia. (Kissinger subsequently might make a second trip to Africa, j 

possibly including South Africa, depending upon the outcome of these j 

talks.) ! 

i 

August 30 — The Rhodesian Digest of Statistics revealed that during July \ 
1976, Rhodesia had recorded the highest net emigration of whites since [ 
it had declared its unilateral independence in 1965. 

August 30 — According to the New York Times, South Africa reportedly 

was modifying its proposal for Namibian independence to include elec- ! 

lions and a role for SWAPO in an attempt to meet U.N. requirements ] 

and prevent the imposition of U.N. sanctions against South Africa. i 

August 31 — According to the Washington Post, Zambian President Ken- \ 
neth Kaunda had grown increasingly skeptical of the prospects for a j 
peaceful resolution of southern African problems and was shifting to 
a more militant attitude. (On August 26, Kaunda had accused the West- 
ern powers of "unprincipled double-dealing" in southern Africa, stat- 
ing that peace efforts had failed, and warning "now we will fight.") 

August 31 — In a speech before the Opportunities Industrialization Center, I 
Secretary Kissinger appealed to black African leaders not to abandon 

hope that the United States and Britain could negotiate a formula to \ 

end white minority control in Rhodesia and Namibia through peace- j 

ful means; and he renewed a pledge that the United States would use : 

all its influence for peaceful change, equality of opportunity, and basic : 

human rights in South Africa. [ 

August 31 — According to the Washington Post, African nations at the ! 
United Nations agreed to postpone consideration of a proposal to impose ! 
sanctions against South Africa for its refusal to conform to U.N. de- 5 



125 



mands with respect to Namibia pending the outcome of the Kissinger- 
Vorster talks. 

August 31 — The Manchester Guardian reported a South African soldier's 
claim that he had witnessed the torture and killing of captive black 
Africans by South African troops during operations to clear the civilian 
population from the border area of Namibia. 

August 31 — According to the New York Times, continued racial strife in 
Soweto caused at least six more deaths, bringing the total death toll over 
the past 2 months to 296. 

August 31 — The Secretary General of the Organization of African Unity 
(OAU), Mr. William Eteki Mboumoua, stated that the OAU would 
support the use of Cuban assistance by SWAPO to force South Africa to 
relinquish Namibia. 

September 3 — The State Department publicly acknowledged for the first 
time that it was exploring the possibility of providing international 
guarantees to Rhodesian whites to induce them to yield power to the 
black majority. 

September 3 — For the second consecutive day the business center of Cape 
Town, South Africa, was affected by violence following demonstrations 
by "coloured" (mixed-race) students. It was the first major demon- 
stration in a predominantly white area since racial conflict erupted in 
June. 

September 6 — Following three days of talks with South African Prime 
Minister Volster in Zurich, Switzerland, Secretary Kissinger stated that 
the "conditions for negotiations exist" and that there had been progress 
in the two main areas of talks — Rhodesia and Namibia. 

September 6 — SWAPO leader Sam Nujoma stated that he was ready to 
discuss the transfer of power in Namibia directly with South Africa at 
an international conference, although he rejected the groups currently 
participating in constitutional talks with Pretoria as "puppets". (Nujoma 
said that such groups would have to be regarded as part of the South 
African delegation to such a conference.) 

September 7 — The Washington Post reported that about 50 South African 
pilots and technicians who had been flying with the Rhodesian Air 
Force had recently been recalled to South Africa. 

September 7 — The Presidents of Angola, Mozambique, Tanzania, Bot- 
swana, and Zambia — the so-called "front line" African nations — con- 
cluded two days of talks in Tanzania without reconciling the feuding 
factions of Rhodesia's black nationalist movements. (The leaders did 
agree, however, to "further intensify the arms struggle in Rhodesia.") 

September 7 — Secretary Kissinger announced that he had been invited by 
President Nyerere to go to Tanzania and present his proposals for 
launching "shuttle diplomacy" in southern Africa in an effort to resolve 
the Rhodesian and Namibian racial crisis. (A spokesmen for Nyerere, 
however, stated that: "He is not coming at our invitation. He asked to 
come and we have said 'All right come along.' ") 

September 8 — The Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Africa began 
a series of hearings on the subject of U.S. business involvement in South 
Africa. 



81-813 O - 77 - 9 



126 



September 8 — The U.N. Special Committee Against Apartheid approved a 
report attesting to the "ever-closer collaboration" between Israel and 
South Africa. 

September 8 — President Ford promised a "major effort" to mediate the 
racial conflict in southern Africa; but he emphasized that there was no 
"specific American plan." 

September 9 — South African Prime Minister Vorster stated that he was 
prepared to meet with black leaders in urban areas to discuss grievances 
such as wages, work opportunities, and social services; but he again 
rejected any movement toward a one-man, one-vote political system that 
would give blacks representation in the all-white Parliament. 

September 10 — The Washington Post reported that 15 persons had been 
killed in confrontations in white residential areas of Cape Town, South 
Africa, and that, for the first time, the anti-Government demonstrations 
included both "coloured" and black Africans. 

September 10 — The New York Times reported that the African National 
Council (ANC) , the umbrella grouping formed in 1974 to unite contend- 
ing Rhodesian black nationalists, had broken up. 

September 10 — The South African Government announced the rescinding 
several "obsolete practices and usages" restricting South Africa's 2.4 
million "coloureds". (The changes will end segregation of certain public 
facilities and some previous economic restrictions.) 

September 11 — Secretary Kissinger stated that he was traveling to southern 
Africa because "no other country was available to play an intermediary 
role between white regimes and black nationalists movements," and be- 
cause the risks to world peace of escalating violence in southern Africa 
were very severe. 

September 13-24 — Secretary Kissinger conducted two weeks of "shuttle 
diplomacy" in Africa aimed at achieving negotiated settlements of the 
Rhodesian and Namibian problems. (The trip included stops in five 
African nations, and talks with the Presidents of Tanzania, Zambia, 
Kenya, and Zaire, as well as Prime Minister Vorster of South Africa 
and Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith in South Africa. He also con- 
sulted with Rhodesian nationalist leader Joshua Nkomo in Zambia.) 

September 15 — The United Nations High Commission for Refugees 
(UNHCR) appealed for $32,500,000 and 48,000 tons of food to aid 
refugees in Angola. 

September 16 — U.N. Secretary General Kurt Waldheim endorsed American 
mediation efforts in southern Africa and said that "an escalation of 
violence would be inevitable" should the negotiation process fail. 

September 17 — Secretary Kissinger arrived in South Africa for the first 
visit to that nation by an American Secretary of State. (It was reported 
that South African police had killed four students in Soweto who were 
demonstrating against the Kissinger visit.) 

September 18 — Following talks with South African Prime Minister Vorster 
in South Africa, it was reported that Secretary Kissinger had made 
progress in both the key issues of independence for Namibia and transi- 
tion to majority rule in Rhodesia. 



127 



September 18 — Secretary Kissinger met with 22 blacks, "coloured", Indian, 
and white South African "opinion leaders" to hear their views on the 
current political situation on South Africa. 

September 18 — The Washington Star reported that the United States had 
complained to the Soviet Union about what it regarded as distorted and 
strident commentary in the ofl&cial Soviet press about Secretary 
Kissinger's diplomatic mission to southern Africa. 

September 18 — Secretary Kissinger announced that he would meet with 
Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith in South Africa. (Earlier Kissinger 
had said that he would meet with Smith only if he had indications that 
the Smith Government was ready to make major concessions to African 
demands for transition to majority rule in 2 years.) 

September 19 — Following talks with Rhodesian Prime Minister Smith in 
South Africa, Secretary Kissinger stated that he was satisfied that Smith 
would accept a plan for transition to maj ority rule. 

September 19 — The State Department announced that American missionary 
Armond Dall had been released after 1 year of imprisonment in 
Mozambique. 

September 19 — CIA Director George Bush stated that intelligence reports 
indicated that there could be a mass slaughter in Rhodesia if the 
Kissinger mission in Southern Africa failed. 

September 20 — The Christian Institute of South Africa issued a report in 
which it stated that action taken by the South African Government since 
the outbreak of unrest in the black community in June had taken the 
country a significant step further toward being a police state. (The report 
listed the names of 315 people known to have been detained under the 
security laws.) 

September 20 — Rhodesian Prime Minister Smith stated that "concrete 
results" had emerged from his talks with Secretary Kissinger, and that 
he felt there was "a chance of a settlement". 

September 20 — Following a briefing by Secretary Kissinger on the results 
of his talks with Rhodesian Prime Minister Smith, Zambian President 
Kaunda declined to state whether the results were acceptable to black 
Africa. 

September 20 — The New York Times reported that Prime Minister Vorster 
of South Africa was apparently ready to have SWAPO take part in the 
constitutional talks taking place in Windhoek, capital of Namibia, but 
that no announcement of this decision was likely before the Windhoek 
meetings resumed on October 5, 1976. 

September 21 — Following talks with Secretary Kissinger in Tanzania, 
President Nyerere stated that Rhodesian Prime Minister Smith had 
accepted the principle of black majority rule for Rhodesia within 2 
years. 

September 22 — Rhodesian nationalist leader Joshua Nkomo stated that 
there were "very serious flaws" in the Rhodesian settlement plan, and 
the Vice-President of Mozambique, Marcellino dos Santos, stated that 
Mozambique would not support the Rhodesian plan. 



128 



September 23 — The New York Times reported that Secretary Kissinger 
planned to meet with SWAPO leader Nujoma to work out final details 
for a conference which would lead to independence for Namibia. 

September 23 — The New York Times reported that two versions of the 
understanding between Rhodesian Prime Minister Smith and Secretary 
Kissinger had been circulating in Africa. (In Tanzania, President 
Nyerere said he understood from Kissinger that Smith had agreed to 
black majority rule within two years, and reporters with Kissinger had 
received the impression that the deadline was still open to negotiation.) 

September 23 — ^The South African Government announced an end to cer- 
tain forms of segregation in sports events and that the Government would 
sanction multiracial games at all levels and mixed racial teams in inter- 
national competition. (In recent years, South Africa had been excluded 
from many international sports events because many South African 
teams were not integrated.) 

September 24 — Prime Minister Smith of Rhodesia announced that he had 
accepted Secretary Kissinger's proposals calling for an immediate 
biracial temporary government in Rhodesia and for black majority rule 
within 2 years, with the condition that guerrilla warfare would end and 
that international economic sanctions against Rhodesia would be lifted. 

September 24 — According to the New York Times, about 400 black youths 
were arrested after a protest march in downtown Johannesburg had 
erupted in violence. 

September 24 — Secretary Kissinger welcomed the Rhodesian Prime 
Minister's acceptance of the Anglo-American formula for transition to 
black majority rule, but cautioned that "it was only the beginning," 
since problems could still arise if whites and blacks failed to carry it out. 

September 25 — Rhodesian nationalist leader Joshua Nkomo returned to 
Salisbury, Rhodesia, to confer with supporters before responding to the 
Smith settlement proposals. 

September 25 — The New York Times reported that the United States, 
Britain, and South Africa would work out the details of an international 
financial consortium to help assure an orderly transition to majority 
rule in Rhodesia, and that, while the exact size of the fund had not yet 
been determined, the United States might be asked to contribute from 
$400 to $500 million. 

September 25 — ^The Soviet press agency ^055 described the proposed 
Rhodesian settlement as fraudulent, contending that it would create a pro- 
Western Government to deflect the African national liberation move- 
ment. (Throughout the mediation effort by Kissinger, the Soviet press 
had kept up a barrage of attacks charging that Kissinger was visiting 
southern Africa to insure the preservation of racist regimes.) 

September 26 — ^The five "front lines" African Presidents stated that the 
plan proposed by Rhodesian Prime Minister Smith, if accepted, "would 
be tantamount to legalizing the colonial and racist structures of power" 
in Rhodesia. (The Presidents called on Britain, as the "colonial 
authority" over Rhodesia, to convene a conference to work out a substi- 
tute plan.) 



129 



September 26 — British Foreign Secretary Anthony Crosland said that the 
United Kingdom would help organize an interim government in 
Rhodesia, and that his Minister of African Affairs would fly to Africa 
to be available to discuss plans for Rhodesia with neighboring countries. 
(Crosland said African presidents "have not slammed the door" on the 
proposals of Mr. Smith: "Clearly they don't want to accept them in their 
entirety, but are willing to look at them for a basis of negotiation.") 

September 27 — According to State Department spokesmen, several Afri- 
can leaders had informed the United States that their statement on 
Rhodesia of September 26 was not meant as a total rejection of the 
settlement plan, and that the negotiations were still "on track." 

September 28 — The Rhodesian Government suggested publicly that the 
United States had misinformed and possibly misled it with last minute 
assurances that key black African states had agreed to American pro- 
posals to end the Rhodesian constitutional crisis. (The office of Prime 
Minister Smith stated that a secret communique from Secretary Kis- 
singer on September 22 "contained the assurance that no new demands 
would be raised from the other side.") 

September 28 — ^Tanzanian President Nyerere stated that Africa's black 
leaders expect majority rule in four to six weeks when, "with the for- 
mation of an interim government, the powers of the government of 
Rhodesia will be passed to the majority. Independence will then follow." 
(Nyerere also stated that the allocation of the ministries of defense and 
law and order in an interim government to whites, as announced by 
Prime Minister Smith, was "unacceptable.") 

September 28 — The New York Times reported that Britain was sending 
two representatives to Botswana to resolve dissension over the plan for 
majority black rule in Rhodesia and to try to accelerate the process of 
putting it to work. 

September 28 — Secretary Kissinger stated that progress toward the open- 
ing of negotiations between Rhodesian blacks and whites would be made 
rapidly, and that all "parties have expressed their willingness, and 
indeed their eagerness, to get the negotiations going soon." 

September 28 — President Nyerere of Tanzania denied that the "front 
line" presidents had agreed to detailed proposals for Rhodesian ma- 
jority rule in talks with Secretary Kissinger which were later publicly 
rejected. 

September 29 — British Foreign Secretary Crosland announced that the 
United Kingdom was prepared to convene a conference in southern 
Africa to discuss formation of an interim government in Rhodesia. 
(Crosland suggested that the conference should take place in about two 
weeks "anywhere in southern Africa acceptable to the parties con- 
cerned," and that Britain was prepared to provide a chairman for the 
meeting, offering the name of Ivor Richard, British Representative to 
the United Nations, as a possible chairman.) 

September 29 — Rhodes-an nationalist leader Bishop Muzorewa, Zambian 
President Kaunda, and President Mobutu of Zaire welcomed the British 
proposal for a conference concerning Rhodesia. 

September 29 — Secretary Kissinger welcomed the British call for a biracial 
meeting on Rhodesia within two weeks and said that the United States 



130 



expected a conference to be held in Geneva to resolve the problem of \ 
Namibia. (At the United Nations, Kissinger met with SWAPO leader 
Nujoma for the first time.) ; 

September 30 — In a speech before the United Nations General Assembly, i 
Secretary Kissinger called on the leaders of Africa "to pull back from 
the brink" of interracial war and to devise their own political future 
without the interference of outside powers. 

September 30 — Representatives of SWAPO at the United Nations stated j 
that Secretary Kissinger had been unable to obtain any "meaningful ' 
commitment" from South Africa regarding independence for Namibia 
and that SWAPO would press the Security Council to invoke sanctions , 
against South Africa. 

October 1 — A Rhodesian court sentenced Roman Catholic Bishop Donal 
Lament to 10 years labor for failing to report visits by black guerrillas ^ 
to a mission near the Mozambique border. ^ 

October 1 — Angola denied a South African radio report that Cuban -led 
Angolan troops had wiped out whole villages in southern Angola and 
that hundreds of refugees had fled to Namibia. 1 

October 1 — The Washington Post reported that the Zimbabwe People's 
Army, the Rhodesian guerrilla force that has waged the escalating i 
guerrilla war, had rejected Kissinger's peace plan for Rhodesia and had i 
pledged to continue the war until "final victory." 

October 2 — Rhodesian nationalist leaders Joshua Nkomo and Bishop Abel 
Muzorewa met in an attempt to overcome the divisions preventing a 
united black front at the Geneva conference on Rhodesia. 

October 3 — African nationalist leader Bishop Abel Muzorewa returned 
to Rhodesia after 14 months of self-imposed exile and accused the ■ 
United States of attempting to make his rival, Joshua Nkomo, head of I 
an interim government. | 

October 4 — Assistant Secretary of State Schaufle and British Foreign Min- ; 
ister of State Rowlands conferred in Rhodesia with Prime Minister Ian j 
Smith on arrangements for the Geneva conference on Rhodesia. j 

October 7 — At the United Nations, Nigeria's Commissioner for External \ 

Affairs, Joseph Garba, attacked the "secrecy" surrounding Secretary of i 

State Kissinger's negotiations on southern Africa, and he charged that ] 
Kissinger might have impaired efforts to secure early independence for 

Namibia. \ 

October 8 — United States and South African officials ended two days of | 

talks on setting up a fund to ease the transition to majority rule in i 

Rhodesia. (A statement issued after the talks said that the fund would ] 

be used to expand "economic opportunities and skills of the black ma- ' 

jority" as well as "economic security for all segments of the popula- ! 
tion." No figure for the amount of the fund was specified.) 

October 8 — At a meeting with seven homeland leaders, South African : 
Prime Minister Vorster rejected a demand for a multi-racial conven- , 
tion to discuss the country's racial problems, saying he saw "no merit : 
in the idea at all." ; 



131 



October 8 — South African Zulu leader Chief Gatsha Buthelezi told Prime 
Minister Vorster that black Africans must be granted rights and recogni- 
tion or else "more and more of our people will feel that violence is the 
only alternative left." 

October 8 — British Foreign Secretary Anthony Crosland announced that 
he would convene a conference in Geneva within two weeks to set up an 
interim government in Rhodesia that would lead to a peaceful transition 
to black majority rule. Crosland said the conference would assemble on 
October 21 with a view to a formal opening on October 25, (The opening 
of the Geneva conference was subsequently delayed until October 28, at 
the request of the African delegates.) 

October 11 — Two leading black South African actors, Winston Ntshona 
and John Kani, were detained by Transkei oflEcials after performing in 
a play critical of the South African Government's racial policies. 

October 13 — Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith warned black nationalist 
leaders invited to the coming Geneva conference that many moderate 
Africans were ready to cooperate in forming an interim government if 
the nationalist leaders did not come to terms under the provisions of 
the agreement he negotiated last month with Secretary of State Henry 
Kissinger. 

October 13 — At the United Nations, Sweden accused South Africa of "brutal 
oppression" of its black population, proposed a ban on future invest- 
ments in South Africa and Namibia, and declared that Sweden regarded 
the situation in southern Africa as a threat to the peace. 

October 14 — According to a joint communique issued at the end of a 6-day 
visit to Moscow by Angolan President Agostinho Neto, Angola is to 
receive more Soviet military aid. (Earlier in Neto's visit, he and Soviet 
leader Brezhnev signed a 20-year friendship treaty.) 

October 15 — The Washington Post reported that Rhodesian officials had 
claimed that Secretary Kissinger had given Rhodesian Prime Minister 
Ian Smith assurances that the United States would change its attitude 
toward the Smith Government if black nationalist leaders reject the 
British-American package for a settlement to the Rhodesian dispute. 

October 15 — The South African embassy said that 47,000 refugees had 
crossed into Namibia from the southern region of Angola in the past 
week and that local officials were pressuring the South African Govern- 
ment to negotiate their return to Angola. 

October 17 — According to the New York Times, U.S. Government analysts 
predict that Rhodesia's economy will experience "zero growth" this 
year, despite a good harvest and the opening of several new nickel and 
gold mines. (They said the economy was faltering less because of eco- 
nomic sanctions than because of serious transport difficulties and an 
increasing outflow of skilled labor. ) 

October 17 — Rhodesian nationalist leader Joshua Nkomo demanded that 
British Foreign Secretary Anthony Crosland be appointed Chairman of 
the Geneva conference on Rhodesia in place of British U.N. Ambassador 
Ivor Richards. 



132 



October 17 — Following a meeting of the four "front line" states, Tanzanian 
President Julius Nyerere called on Britain to play an enlarged role at 
the Geneva conference on Rhodesia, and to assume "residual powers" 
in Rhodesia's transition to black majority rule. (Nyerere stated that he 
expected Britain to assume its "full responsibilities as colonial power" 
at Geneva and after. ) 

October 19 — The United States, Britain, and France vetoed a resolution in 
the Security Council that would have imposed an arms embargo against 
South Africa to force it to relinquish control of Namibia. (The three 
nations explained the veto on the grounds that it could upset diplomatic 
efforts by Secretary of State Kissinger to induce South Africa to accept 
terms for a conference on independence for the territory.) 

October 19 — In an interview with the New York Times, South African 
Prime Minister Vorster stated that South Africa has no plans to extend 
political rights to urban blacks in the white South African Parliament. 
(He stated that urban and rural blacks exercise their political rights in 
the homelands. ) 

October 20 — The Christian Science Monitor reported that an international 
consortium of five or six banks, including Citibank, was arranging a loan 
of about $110 million to South Africa, apparently for balance-of-pay- 
ments support. 

October 22 — The Department of State announced that the United States 
would not recognize the Transkei, the black homeland in South Africa 
scheduled to become independent on October 26, 1976. 

October 22 — Informal discussions aimed at reaching an accord that would 
establish a biracial transitional government in Rhodesia began in Geneva. 

October 22 — The constitutional conference meeting in Windhoek, Namibia, 
adjourned in a militant atmosphere following black reaction to a racial 
insult by a white delegate to the conference. (Earlier the delegates agreed 
to draw up a draft constitution for an interim government within the 
next few months.) 

October 24 — Rhodesian nationalist leaders Joshua Nkomo and Robert 
Mugabe arrived in Geneva for the conference on Rhodesia and repeated 
that they have had no intention of negotiating on the basis of U.S. Secre- 
tary of State Kissinger's plan for a transition to black majority rule. 

October 25 — Rhodesian Foreign Minister Pieter Van der Byl reaffirmed 
his government's stand that the Kissinger proposals are a "pretty well 
immutable package deal" to be accepted or rejected in their entirety by 
all the parties to the conference, and that only minor details of the 
proposed interim government of blacks and whites are to be settled in 
Geneva. 

October 25 — Prime Minister Ian Smith said that it might be necessary to 
ask Secretary of State Henry Kissinger to come to Geneva to avert a 
threatened impasse at the conference, and that he had accepted the plan 
advanced by Mr. Kissinger last month in the belief that the proposals had 
been cleared by Mr. Kissinger with Britain, the former colonial power 
in Rhodesia, and black African front-line states. (Britain insists that 
the plan is nejjotiable and the four Rhodesian nationalists at the con- 
ference reject key points of the plan.) 



133 



October 25— The New York Times reported that the United States had urged 
key black African leaders, such as President Nyerere of Tanzania and 
President Kaunda of Zambia, to use their influence to prevent black 
Rhodesian nationalists from making such extreme demands that the 
Geneva conference collapses. 

October 25 — The Washington Post reported that the two black actors who 
had been detained in Transkei had been released and expelled after pri- 
vate American intervention with the Transkei Minister of Justice. 

October 26- — Chief Kaiser Matanzima declared Transkei, the Xhosa tribal 
homeland, independent from South Africa. On the same day the United 
Nations General Assembly voted 134--0 in support of a resolution which 
rejected the establishment of the Republic of the Transkei by South 
Africa and which called upon all governments to deny the territory 
any form of recognition. (The United States abstained.) 

October 28 — The Geneva conference on Rhodesia was formally opened by 
British Chairman Ivor Richard. The participants include Rhodesian 
Prime Minister Ian Smith and four African nationalists: Joshua Nkomo, 
Robert Mugabe, Bishop Abel Muzorewa, and the Rev. Ndabaningi 
Sithole. 

October 29 — African nationalists at the Rhodesia conference in Geneva 
demanded that Britain assume full responsibility for the rapid transfer 
of power to the black maj ority. 

October 30 — The Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Willicim 
Schaufele arrived in Geneva to assist the Rhodesian negotiations. (Previ- 
ously the State Department had indicated that the United States would 
play a minimal role at the Geneva talks.) 

October 31 — The New York Times reported that United States officials are 
now convinced that Britain must play a pivotal role in the transition to 
black majority rule in Rhodesia or face an escalation of the guerrilla 
war. (Britain has previously insisted that it will not accept responsi- 
bility for running an interim government in Rhodesia.) 

October 31 — The Washington Post reported that Israel is understood to have 

signed a long-term agreement to buy coal from South Africa, in part to 
reduce its dependence on the oil it buys from Iran. 

November 1 — Mozambique authorities claimed that tank-led Rhodesian 
troops, with bomber support, had invaded two sections of its territory in 
what was reportedly the most extensive cross-border raid yet by Rhode- 
sian forces against guerrilla sanctuaries. 

November 2 — The Los Angeles Times reported that a national survey 
conducted by the South African newspaper Rapport had indicated that 
more than half of all the white South Africans would support major 
changes in the country's race laws, including integration of sports, 
theaters, universities and churches, as well as abolition of the pass laws 
and the laws which forbid interracial marriage. 

November 3 — Rhodesia said that its security forces had succeeded in block- 
ing an offensive of up to 1,700 black nationalist guerrillas by staging a 
pre-emptive strike into guerrilla base areas in Mozambique. 

November 3 — Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith left the Geneva con- 
ference on Rhodesia after criticizing the slow pace of the conference and 



} 



134 

its failure to take up substantive issues dealing with the transition to I 
majority rule. (Foreign Minister P. K. Van der Byl remained in Geneva 
to represent the Rhodesian Government at the negotiations.) 

November 4 — Rhodesian nationalist leader Robert Mugabe stated that he i 

would reject the projected $2 billion trust and investment fund planned | 
to ease the transition to majority rule. (He stated, "To us it seems as if 
its purpose is to bind Zimbabewe politically and economically and it 
could therefore compromise our independence.") 

November 5 — The United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution | 

which accused the United States, Britain, France, West Germany, and ; 

Israel of supplying nuclear and military equipment and technology to | 

"the racist and minority regime of South Africa." j 

November 5 — In an interview published in the South African Financial ! 

Mail, President-elect Jimmy Carter stated that while he opposed the im- ; 

plementation of economic sanctions against South Africa, he would use ■ 

"economic leverage" against the "government system of repression" in | 

South Africa. ! 

! 

November 5 — Prime Minister Ian Smith stated that even if the Geneva talks 
failed, his government was committed to carrying out the Kissinger pro- 
posals for majority rule, perhaps by discussions with moderate blacks \ 
inside Rhodesia. i 

November 6 — The Washington Post reported that South African police ■ 

officials had visited the United States and Europe before the outbreak \ 
of racial disorders last summer to study riot control, and had concluded 

that South Africa had to develop its own techniques. ! 

November 7 — South African Prime Minister Vorster stated that South 

Africa would not cut off arms supplies to Rhodesia if that country's i 

white rulers and black nationalists failed to reach agreement on black j 

majority rule. ■ 

November 9 — The U.N. General Assembly approved 10 resolutions con- | 

demning South Africa and calling for arms, trade, and sports embargoes ; 

against the "racist regime", including one resolution which said that | 

"the racist regime of South Africa is illegitimate and has no right to j 

represent the people of South Africa." (The United States voted against i 

five resolutions and abstained on three; two resolutions were approved ] 

by concensus. ) j 

November 9 — The New York Times reported that heavy fighting had broken i 

out in southern Angola as government forces, aided by Cuban troops, ! 

sought to crush the guerrillas of UNITA that have continued to wage j 

guerrilla warfare against the central government. (South Africa reported • 

that a total of 8,000 refugees had crossed the border into Namibia, and I 
that the refugees claimed that the Angolan forces were using scorched 
earth tactics, destroying crops and livestock, and causing high civilian 

casualties. ) ! 

November 11 — French Government officials announced that France would j 

not sell any more nuclear power stations to South Africa after the two j 

nuclear reactors already ordered had been delivered. 1 

November 11 — In a strongly worded attack, the China News Agency said ; 

that the Soviet Union was trying to "dominate Africa by force of arms" 1 

and that Soviet Communist Party leader Brezhnev had lied in claiming j 



135 



that the Soviet Union sought no personal gain in its support of the victors 
in the Angolan civil war. 

November 13 — The Washington Post reported a South African charge that, 
2 weeks earlier, Angolan and Cuban troops had crossed into Namibia 
and had seized a group of refugees who had fled from the fighting in 
Angola. 

November 14 — South Africa reversed its earlier decision and granted a 
• visa to Congressman Charles Diggs. 

November 16 — Mozambique charged that Rhodesian forces, searching for 
guerrillas, used jets, bombers, and helicopters as they crossed the border 
and attacked a Mozambique army base. 

November 16 — The New York Times reported that prior to Rhodesian ac- 
ceptance of the American plan for black majority rule. Secretary of 
State Kissinger sent Ian Smith an ambiguous message that suggested that 
black leaders had agreed to a Rhodesian proposal that would allow whites 
to retain the defense and political ministries in an interim government. 
(African leaders have denied that they ever agreed to such terms.) 

November 17 — According to the Washington Star, U.S. intelligence reports 
have indicated that Russia is increasing military aid to Rhodesian 
guerrillas in Mozambique. (According to the report, a Russian ship 
unloaded 18 heavy-gunned armored vehicles in Tanzania, and a Tan- 
zanian ship had delivered Russian 122-mm multiple rocket launchers and 
armored vehicles to Mozambique. ) 

November 18 — South African Zulu leader Chief Gatsha Buthelezi stated 
that student protests and the wave of racial violence that have recently 
taken place in South Africa had seriously set back African efforts to 
break white minority rule. 

November 18 — The New York Times reported that the South African Gov- 
ernment had issued banning orders against four whites who were in- 
volved in black trade union activities, sharply curtailing their freedom 
for at least 5 years. (They were banned under the Internal Security 
Act, which authorizes the banning or detention of anyone considered a 
threat to national security or public order.) 

November 18 — The South African Government issued "banning orders" to 
nine additional black trade union activists, bringing the total under 
restriction to thirteen. (Eleven of the 13 are white.) 

November 19 — Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith stated that Secretary 
of State Kissinger had indicated to him that the United States and other 
Western nations would provide Rhodesia with "material support", in- 
cluding military supplies, if black nationalists caused a breakdown in the 
Geneva peace talks. 

November 20 — Seceretary of State Kissinger stated that there was "no 
possibility" the United States would sell arms to the white Rhodesian 
Government if talks in Geneva on black majority breakdown. 

November 20 — In Francistown, Botswana, bombs destroyed the head- 
quarters of the Rhodesian nationalist group headed by Joshua Nkomo. 
(A Botswana Government statement said it had established "beyond 
doubt" that those responsible for the bombings were members of Ian 
Smith's security forces. ) 



136 



November 22 — The United States, expressing "serious doubts" about the 
true independence of the current Angolan Government, abstained on a 
Security Council vote recommending Angolan admission to the United 
Nations. (The U.S. abstention had the effect of assuring U.N. acceptance 
of the membership application.) 

November 24 — The Rhodesian military command announced that Rhodesia 
had sent its air force against Mozambican military positions. (It was the 
first time Rhodesia had acknowledged using aircraft against 
Mozambique.) 

November 24 — The Washington Post reported that black South African 
student activists had requested U.S. aid and protection for hundreds of 
students who have sought refuge in neighboring African countries. (The 
request was for the American Government and U.S. companies to pro- 
vide scholarships and travel documents for the student refugees.) 

November 25 — The New York Times reported that Rhodesia was building 
three airfields capable of handling transport planes. (The fields are re- 
portedly located at Hartley, Wankie, and Buffalo Range. ) 

November 26 — Black Nationalist leaders Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo 
accepted a British proposal to set March 1, 1978, as the date by which 
Rhodesia — under black majority rule — would be declared independent. 
(The agreement broke a 3-week deadlock which had threatened to end 
the conference. ) 

November 26 — The Washington Post reported that South African security 
police appear to have launched a major crackdown on church groups. 
(According to the report, the facilities of eight major religious organi- 
zations were searched, including the Christian Institute and the South 
African Council of Churches, and at least five members of four groups 
had been detained.) 

November 27 — South African police and black demonstrators clashed in 
Cape Town, South Africa in the first serious disorder since the riots of 
last summer. 

November 29 — The United Nations representative in Angola stated that one 
of six Angolans had been uprooted by the civil war, and that malnutrition 
had led to epidemics of tuberculosis and tetanus. (The United Nations 
relief program totals $80 million: $32.5 and 48 tons of food.) 

November 29 — The participants in the Geneva Conference on Rhodesia 
began formal discussions on the creation of an interim government. 

November 29 — The Washington Post reported that there was widespread 
speculation in diplomatic circles about plans to form a South Atlantic 
Treaty Organization to counter growing Soviet naval presence in the 
south Atlantic. (According to the report, such an organization would 
include Brazil, South Africa, and possibly Argentina and Uruguay. ) 

November 29 — According to the New York Times, the Angolan Benguela 
railroad has been repaired, but Zaire had refused to sign an agreement 
to allow goods to be shipped on it. (Without Zaire's cooperation, Zambia 
is also prevented from using the Benguela. ) 

December 1 — Angola was admitted to the United Nations as the 146th 
member. 



137 



December 2 — At the end of a long and controversial trial, four South 
African students and a university lecturer, all white, were acquitted of 
charges of conspiring to promote the aims of two banned groups, the 
Communist Party and the African National Congress. 

December 2 — British Foreign Secretary Anthony Crosland stated that 
Britain was ready to play a "direct role" in a transition government in 
Rhodesia, if it was the general view that it would be helpful. 

December 3 — The Constitutional Conference meeting in Windhoek, 
Namibia, announced that a multiracial interim government would be 
established within 6 months. 

December 3 — South Africa's Commissioner General in Namibia, Jannie 
de Wit, warned that South African forces may apply hot pursuit tactics 
to wipe out SWAPO guerrilla bases in Angola. 

December 5 — The Washington Post reported that an economic and politi- 
cal study of southern Africa being made by the U.S. Agency for Inter- 
national Development (AID) had come under attack by African na- 
tionalist organizations and their sympathizers in the United States, who 
have characterized it as a blueprint for American intervention in south- 
ern Africa. 

December 7 — Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith returned to the Geneva 
Conference after a month long absence. 

December 7 — Botswana's Director of Information announced that 
Botswana would not harbor nationalist guerrillas operating against 
South Africa or Rhodesia despite pressures from other African nations 
to do so. 

December 7 — In the first incident of urban guerrilla tactics, a bomb ex- 
ploded in a white restaurant in Johannesburg, South Africa. 

December 9 — The Washington Post reported that an estimated 400 Ameri- 
cans, most of whom were Vietnam veterans, are currently serving in the 
Rhodesian army. 

December 11 — Newsday, the Long Island newspaper, reported that a 3- 
week study had indicated that the death toll from racial disturbances in 
Soweto, South Africa, was at least 75 percent higher than figures re- 
leased by South African Government authorities. 

December 12 — The New York Times reported that Secretary of State 
Kissinger and British Foreign Secretary Crosland had discussed several 
strategies aimed at breaking the deadlock at the Geneva Conference on 
Rhodesia. (It was reported that ideas have focused on appointing a 
British executive officer and a Briton as defense minister and as min- 
ister of law and order.) 

December 14 — The Geneva Conference on Rhodesia adjourned, to be re- 
sumed on January 17, 1977. (Chairman Ivor Richard announced that 
during the interim, he would visit Africa to gain support for compromise 
proposals.) 

December 15 — Rhodesian Foreign Minister P. K. Van der Byl stated that 
he could see no role for Britain in the transitional period except in the 
form of a diplomatic representation, and he dismissed the possibility 
that a British role could break the impass over insistence by both the 
black and white sides that the military and police authority be in their 
respective hands in the transition period. 



138 



December 17 — Rhodesian troops, backed by jet fighters and light bombers, 
struck into Mozambique in pursuit of black nationalist guerrillas. 

December 17 — The New York Times reported that American efforts to 
bring about a Geneva Conference on independence for Namibia had 
been unsuccessful and probably would not be revived until President- 
elect Carter took office. 

December 18 — The Washington Post reported that a new British- American 
peace proposal for Rhodesia included a proposal to put a mixed racial 
team of Commonwealth officers in charge of Rhodesia's military and 
police. (According to the report, the forces would come from Canada, 
Nigeria, and India.) 

December 19 — Botswana announced that it would ask for an urgent meet- 
ing of the U.N. Security Council to seek help against what it called acts 
of aggression by Rhodesia. 

December 20 — The U.N. General Assembly approved a resolution that, for 
the first time, endorsed "armed struggle" for Namibia to secure inde- 
pendence from South Africa. (The United States opposed the resolution 
which was approved 107-6.) 

December 20 — The International Commission of Jurists stated in a report 
that the Angolan Court that sentenced American Daniel Gearhart and 
three other mercenaries to death in June had used tenuous legal reason- 
ing. (It noted that the crime of being a mercenary did not exist in 
Angolan law at the time of the trial and that there was little direct 
evidence against the defendants.) 

December 20 — Rhodesian security forces stated that at least 26 black 
workers from a tea estate were shot to death by black guerrillas. 

December 21 — A Soviet embassy spokesman in Zambia said that Moscow 
would seriously consider any official request made by Botswana for mili- 
tary aid to help the African country repulse alleged Rhodesian attacks 
along its borders, although he added that Botswana had not yet re- 
quested such aid. (Earlier, the Botswana Foreign Minister stated that 
Botswana would consider an official offer of arms aid from the Soviet 
Union. Botswana has claimed that Rhodesian forces have made repeated 
incursions and are responsible for 31 incidents of kidnaping and prop- 
erty destruction.) 

December 22 — The U.N. Security Council condemned South Africa and 
accused it of trying to force Lesotho into recognizing the neighboring 
Transkei territory as an independent country. 

December 22 — Britist Chairman of the Geneva Conference on Rhodesia, 
Ivor Richard, announced that Britain was considering four possible 
methods of administering Rhodesia's defense and justice ministries as 
the country moves toward black majority rule. The alternatives include: 
(1) direct control, by a Briton, of the two ministries; (2) control of the 
two ministries by a committee composed equally of Rhodesian whites 
and blacks with a neutral, presumably British, chairman; (3) control of 
one of the ministries by a Rhodesian white and of the other by a black; 
and (4) control of both ministries by a Rhodesian white who is not a 
member of the governing Rhodesian Front Party. 

December 27 — Disorders between rival black groups in black townships 
in Cape Town, South Africa, reportedly left 24 dead and 97 injured. 



139 



December 28 — Winnie Mandela, jailed in South Africa since August under 
the Internal Security Act, was released from prison, but immediately 
served with a banning and house arrest order. 

December 28 — The Washington Post reported that the Zambian Govern- 
ment had ordered officials of UNITA, one of the defeated Angolan libera- 
tion movements, to leave Zambia. (The decision was reportedly made to 
comply with the OAU Charter which does not allow member states to 
harbor groups fighting against the legal government of another member.) 

December 29 — It was announced that Soviet President Nikolai Podgorny 
would visit Zambia, Mozambique, and Tanzania early in March 1977 
in the first tour ever made of southern Africa by any of the top three 
Kremlin leaders. 

December 29 — South African police announced that at least 86 people 
had been killed in clashes in Natal Province over the Christmas weekend. 

December 29 — The South African police announced the release of the last 
of 102 blacks detained under South Africa's Internal Security Act dur- 
ing the racial unrest that broke out 6 months ago. (According to the 
South African Institute of Race Relations, more than 300 other blacks 
still were being held without trial under other security laws.) 

December 29 — The State Department announced it was sending the deputy 
assistant secretary for African Affairs William Edmondson to Africa to 
support the mission of Rhodesia Conference Chairman Ivor Richard. 
(Richard is visiting various African nations to explore "the nature and 
extent of a possible interim government" to rule Rhodesia.) 

December 29 — Two black members of the Rhodesian cabinet, Chief 
Chirau and Chief Kayisa Ndiweni, resigned to head a new political 
party called the Zimbabwe United Peoples Organization. (They said 
that the party would owe allegiance to neither the government nor the 
divided African National Council but would try to bridge the gap be- 
tween them and peacefully bring about majority rule as soon as possible.) 

December 31 — Prime Minister Ian Smith pledged to give careful con- 
sideration to new Rhodesian settlement proposals that would be presented 
by Ivor Richard, but he warned that an abandonment of a set of earlier 
Kissinger proposals would jeopardise his government's agreement to 
hand over majority rule within 2 years. 

December 31 — The New York Times reported that in a meeting with Sec- 
retary of State designate Cyrus Vance, South African Ambassador R. F. 
Botha had stressed South Africa's desire to continue working with the 
United States for a settlement in Rhodesia and Namibia, but had also 
emphasized his government's refusal to have outsiders tell it how to 
manage its own affairs. 



CYPRUS ' 



January 6 — ^Turkey and Czechoslovakia signed an agreement providing 
for expanded economic ties. 

January 15 — Speaking on the Cyprus situation, former Turkish Prime 
Minister Ecevit, in an interview in the Cyprus News, stated that an early 
settlement was essential for Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey. 

January 17 — Greek Cypriot leader Clerides withdrew his resignation as his 
community's representative in intercommunal talks with the Turkish 
Cypriots. (Clerides had announced his resignation on January 14.) 

January 17 — ^Turkish defense ofi&cials announced plans to purchase a squad- 
ron (16 aircraft) each of U.S. F-4 and F-104 jet aircraft. 

January 18 — Turkish Foreign Minister Caglayangil announced that inter- 
communal talks on Cyprus were scheduled to resume on February 17 
as a result of U.N. Secretary General Waldheim's contacts with Greek 
Cypriot leaders. 

January 20 — The Washington Post reported that identification of the as- 
sassins of U.S. Ambassador to Cyprus, Rodger P. Davies, was learned 
by American intelligence within an hour after Davies had been killed 
on August 19, 1974. (The gunmen, reportedly belonging to EOKA-B, 
were still serving in the Cypriot security forces.) 

January 25 — ^The Turkish Government announced the withdrawal of 2,000 
more of its troops from Cyprus, bringing to 12,000 the number of mili- 
tary personnel withdrawn from the island since the July 1974 invasion. 

January 27 — A Cyprus Government spokesman claimed that thousands of 
Turkish settlers were preparing to move into the Greek Cypriot quarter 
of Famagusta. 

February 1 — TASS reported that observers from Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, 
Romania, and Yugoslavia, by invitation of the Kremlin, had arrived in 
Tbilisi, capital of Soviet Georgia, to watch Soviet military maneuvers. 

February 4 — In an interview with the Munich newspaper, Sueddeutsche 
Zeitung, West German Defense Minister Georg Leber, on his return from 
3 days of talks in Ankara, described the U.S. embargo on arms to Tur- 
key as "dumb and dangerous;" Leber warned that the arms ban opened 
NATO's southern flank to Soviet intrusions and that it could prevent the 
Cyprus settlement it had intended to achieve. 

February 4 — It was reported that West German defense sources broadly 
confirmed recent press reports that Turkey desired to purchase between 
$280 and $400 million in arms from West Germany over the next 4 years, 
including some 50 Leopard tanks, anti-tank weapons, aircraft, and naval 
vessels. 



^ Prepared by Brenda Branaman, Foreign Affairs Analyst. 

(141) 



81-813 O - 77 - 10 



142 



February 5 — In his second report to Congress on the progress of Cyprus 
negotiations, President Ford said he was encouraged by recent indica- 
tions that efforts to achieve a peaceful solution to the Cyprus situation 
were moving in the right direction, including resumption of inter- 
communal talks and a "process of reconciliation" between Turkey and 
Greece. 

February 10 — It was announced that the visit to Washington by Turkish 
Foreign Minister Caglayangil, scheduled for the week beginning Feb- 
ruary 9, had been postponed. (Caglayangil had been expected to sign 
a new United States-Turkish defense agreement ; press reports indicated 
that Turkish Government and public opinion reaction to recent Senate 
moves to continue restrictions on military aid to Turkey had created an 
unfavorable climate in Ankara for announcing the signing of a long- 
term defense agreement with the United States.) 

February 13 — Greece and the United States agreed on the text of a new 
and more restrictive "status of forces" agreement to govern the presence 
of American military personnel in Greece. 

February 18 — Turkish Prime Minister Demirel said that Turkey must 
review its relations vyith the United States because of Washington's 
"antagonistic attitude" toward Turkey. 

February 22 — In Vienna, after 5 days of discussion, Greek Cypriot and 
Turkish Cypriot leaders laid down a two-stage timetable for further 
talks on the future of Cyprus, and voiced confidence that negotiations 
were back on course after months of delay. (U.N. Secretary General 
Waldheim announced that the two sides had promised to exchange writ- 
ten proposals on the territorial and constitutional issues for a settlement 
and would meet in May.) 

February 23 — ^The State Department announced that Turkish Foreign 
Minister Caglayangil would visit Washington on March 24^25 for dis- 
cussions with administration oflScials on the United States-Turkish 
defense relationship. 

February 25 — Greece began military exercises in the Aegean Sea and near 
the Turkish border, and Turkey scheduled air and sea maneuvers for the 
following day. 

March 3 — According to UPI, a group of House Democrats indicated that 
they would try to limit U.S. military aid to Turkey but not attempt to 
reimpose a congressional arms embargo when the House debates the 
International Security Assistance bill. 

March 17 — ^The Washington Post reported that Nicos Sampson, a former 
guerrilla who was President of Cyprus for 8 days after the 1974 coup 
that toppled Archbishop Makarios, was arrested and charged for his 
part in the military takeover. 

March 18 — According to the London Times, former Greek Prime Minister 
Mr. Panayotis Kanellopoulos, warned that the partitioning of Cyprus 
"to spare foreign governments a headache . . . might lead to war." 

March 24 — A group of Greek-Americans demonstrated outside the State 
Department as Turkish Foreign Minister Ishan Caglayangil arrived 
for negotiations with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger over resump- 
tion of defense cooperation. 



143 



March 27 — Secretary of State Kissinger and Turkish Foreign Minister 
Caglayangil signed a 4-year agreement restoring U.S. privileges at 
defense facilities in Turkey. The agreement was believed to carry a price 
tag of $1 billion in U.S. aid over the 4 years. 

March 29 — ^The Washington Post reported that municipal and general elec- 
tions were scheduled for May and June in the Turkish zone of Cyprus. 

March 30 — At a hearing of the House International Relations Committee, 
Secretary of State Kissinger was told that the Congress would not 
approve the new 4-year aid accord with Turkey without some progress 
on the Cyprus crisis. 

March 30 — ^Turkish Foreign Minister Caglayangil said that if the U.S. 
Congress refused to ratify the new United States-Turkish defense pact, 
the agreement permitting American bases in Turkey would end. 

March 30 — The Washington Post reported that observers in Athens called 
the United States-Turkish accord "a serious blow" to an understanding 
between Washington and Athens on U.S. bases in Greece. The Athens 
Government called a mission it had sent to Washington to negotiate 
the future of the bases. 

March 31 — Greek Cypriot negotiator Glafkos Clerides had talks with Turk- 
ish Cypriot leader Rauf Denktash. 

April 1 — The New York Times reported the opinion of Western diplomats 
that Greece feared the new United States-Turkish agreement would tip 
the balance of power in the Aegean toward Ankara. 

April 2 — According to a U.N. press release, the Secretary-General reported 
to the Security Council that recent talks between Greek and Turkish 
Cypriot leaders have centered on territorial and constitutional issues, and 
on humanitarian questions. 

April 2 — The Turkish Cabinet agreed to let Parliament decide the fate of 
U.S. bases in Turkey. According to the Washington Post, political com- 
mentators see the unexpected move as (1) an attempt to absolve the 
Government of opposition charges that it was acting against Turkey's 
interests in allowing American installations directed against the Soviet 
Union; and (2) a notification to the U.S. Congress that if it amends the 
agreement or attempts to link it with Cyprus, the pact would be rejected 
by both the Turkish Government and the National Assembly. 

April 6 — Between 2,000 and 3,000 young Greek Cypriots attacked the 
U.S. Embassy in Nicosia with rocks and burning sticks to protest the pro- 
posed resumption of American military aid to Turkey. 

April 8 — Gladfkos Clerides resigned as chief negotiator for Greek Cypriots 
after it became known that he had made a secret agreement to submit his 
side's proposals before the Turkish Cypriots submitted theirs. 

April 8 — ^Turkish-Cypriot President Denktash rejected the Greek-Cypriot 
proposal on the territorial issue. According to a Turkish language radio, 
the proposal would give the Turkish Cypriot Administration control over 
20 percent of the island's territory under a federal state. The Turkish 
Cypriots now control about 40 percent of the territory. 



144 



April 9 — President Ford reported to Congress on the progress of the Cyprus 
negotiations. He said that the two sides had achieved a significant ad- 
vance by their agreement on a procedural formula which would allow 
them to exchange their positions on the key issues of the Cyprus problem. 

April 12 — For the second time in the month, between 2,000 and 3,000 Greek 
Cypriot demonstrators stoned the U.S. Embassy in Nicosia to protest 
planned American military aid to Turkey. 

April 15 — The Washington Post reported that the Turkish-Cypriot Adminis- 
tration accepted the appointment of Tassos Papadopoulos as Greek- 
Cypriot negotiator and named its own representative as Umit Suleiman 
Onan. Papadopoulos was the Greek-Cypriot Deputy President of the 
House of Representatives, and Onan was President of the Turkish Cypriot 
legislative assembly. 

April 15 — The United States and Greece initialed a 4-year accord to provide 
Athens with $700 million worth of arms aid in return for continued use 
of four American-manned military bases in Greece. 

April 17 — The Washington Post reported that Turkey's leftist opposition 
criticized the U.S.-Greek Agreement as negating the U.S.-Turkish mili- 
tary pact. 

April 17 — The New York Times reported that the latest peace proposal 
offered by Turkish Cypriots was rejected by the Greek-Cypriot Goveni- 
ment. President Makarios said the document made no "concrete pro- 
posals on the territorial aspect of the problem." 

April 17 — In a parliamentary briefing on the U.S.-Greek defense coopera- 
tion agreement, Greek Premier Constatine Karamanlis proposed that 
Greece and Turkey (1) agree to end their arms race, and (2) conclude a 
nonaggression pact and seek a peaceful solution of their disputes. In 
response to the speech, Turkish Prime Minister Suleiman Demirel said 
that Turkey was ready to start negotiations on the suggested pact but 
denied that there was an arms race in the area. 

April 19 — Turkish Foreign Minister Caglayangil said that he was ready to 
meet with Greek Foreign Minister Dimitrios Bitsios to discuss the Greek 
offer of a nonaggression pact. 

April 19 — Representative Stephen Solarz (D-N.Y.) had talks with Turkish- 
Cypriot President Denktash and Greek-Cypriot President Makarios on 
the Cyprus problem. 

April 29 — According to UPI, Representative Stephen Solarz, at a news 
conference in his office, called for liftins: the partial arms embargo 
against Turkey and urged Congress to approve the Ford administration's 
projected new defense accords with both Turkey and Greece. 

April 30 — It was announced in Nicosia that the first meeting of the new 
negotiators for the Cyprus problem would take place on May 12 in the 
presence of Mr. Perez de Cuellar, Special Representative of the U.N. Sec- 
retary General. The meeting would deal with humanitarian issues. 

May 3 — Turkish-Cypriot Bayrak Radio reported that the Greek-Cypriot 
administration had rejected the Turkish-Cypriot proposal for an interim 
government on the island and had claimed that the suggestion was aimed 
at undermining the Greek-Cypriot Government. 



145 



May 4 — According to a Greek-Cypriot Government press release, the Greek- 
Cypriot negotiator Tasos Papadopoulos, replying to Turkish-Cypriot 
proposals in a letter to U.N. Special Representative de Cuellar, said that 
the Turkish-Cypriot side had failed to present any concrete proposals on 
the territorial issue and was interested only in prolonging the negotia- 
tions and "using the intervening time for consolidating the de facto 
situation created hy the use of military forces." 

May 4 — Agence France Presse reported that new Greek and Turkish-Cypriot 
negotiations, scheduled for May 12, were postponed indefinitely at the 
request of the Turkish-Cypriots. 

May 12 — Nicosia Domestic Service reported that the Greek-Cypriot Foreign 
Ministry had conveyed a note to the U.N. Special Representative de 
Cuellar and the ambassadors of the five permanent members of the U.N. 
Security Council denouncing the Turkish actions and intentions con- 
cerning the enclaved people and asking that pressure be exerted on 
Turkey to end the tribulations of the enclaved people. 

May 12 — According to Agence France Presse, Turkey announced at the 
Islamic Conference in Istanbul that it had authorized the Palestinian 
Liberation Organization (PLO) to open an office in Turkey. The gesture 
was viewed as a bid for Arab support for the cause of the Turkish- 
Cypriots. Turkish-Cypriot President Rauf Denktash was admitted to the 
conference as an observer. 

May 16 — The Washington Post reported that a UNESCO report on the 
looting and vandalism of Greek churches in the Turkish-occupied sector 
of Cyprus w£is suppressed by the organization for fear of upsetting both 
Greeks and Turks. 

May 20 — ^The New York Times reported that the British Government's 
decision not to intervene militarily in the Cyprus crisis in 1974 was criti- 
cized in a report issued by a Select Committee of the House of Commons. 

May 21 — The Washington Post reported that U.S. Secretary of State Henry 
Kissinger met separately with the Greek and Turkish foreign ministers 
at the Oslo meeting of NATO's foreign ministers to discuss the Cyprus 
dispute. 

May 23 — The Washington Post reported that Greek Foreign Minister Bitsios 
and Turkish Foreign Minister Caglayangil met in Oslo and discussed 
Cyprus among other matters involving relations between the two 
countries. 

May 26 — According to Turkish-Cypriot Bayrak Radio, the Turkish-Cypriot 
side announced its willingness to negotiate the territorial aspects of the 
Cyprus problem within the framework of the Brussels Accord but with 
certain specified conditions. 

May 27 — Nicosia Domestic Service reported the first meeting held by the 
new negotiators in the Inter-Cypriot talks, Tasos Papadopoulos and 
Umit Onan. Earlier, Mr. Onan had indicated that the talks would be on 
the humanitarian issues. 

May 31— Turkish-Cypriot Bayrak Radio quoted President Rauf Denktash as 
accusing Greek-Cypriot President Makarios of sabotaging talks on the 
future of Cyprus when Makarios rejected a Turkish-Cypriot proposal 
to divide the island between the Greek and Turkish-Cypriot communities. 



146 



June 1 — Bayrak Radio reported that Turkish-Cypriot President Denktas had 
responded to allegations in the Greek-Cypriot press concerning terri- 
torial issues with the statement that Turkish-Cypriots cannot accept a 
system where they would get only 27 percent of the island. However, 
Denktas said that his side was ready to discuss border adjustments. 

June 2 — Bayrak Radio reported that Tasos Papadopoulos, the Greek-Cypriot 
Representative in the intercommunal talks, had rejected Turkish-Cypriot 
Representative Umit Onan's May 25 proposals on the territorial issue. 
Papadopoulos said there was no basis in Onan's proposals to warrant 
the resumption of the intercommunal talks. 

June 7 — In his fourth report to Congress on the progress of the Cyprus nego- 
tiations President Ford said that during Oslo NATO ministerial meeting 
in May Secretary of State Kissinger, in separate meetings with Greek 
and Turkish Foreign Ministers, stressed the need for prompt discussion 
of the key issues in the Cyprus problem. Also at Oslo, Secretary Kis- 
singer publicly reiterated the Ford administration's position that the 
current territorial division of Cyprus cannot be permanent. 

June 8 — U.N. Secretary General Kurt Waldheim, in a report to the Security 
Council, recommended that the Council approve a 6-month extension of 
the U.N. peace-keeping force for Cyprus and said that the parties con- 
cerned had agreed to the force's continued presence. 

June 8 — Bayrak Radio reported that Greek-Cypriot President Makarios, in 
a recent statement made at Dheftera village, repeated his proposal for a 
unitary state. Turkish-Cypriot President Denktas responded by repeat- 
ing demands for a biregional federal system of government for the islsmd. 

June 11 — UPI reported that Turkish Foreign Minister Caglayangil said 
Turkey would close 26 American bases on its territory permanently if 
the U.S. Congress failed to ratify the United States-Turkish defense 
cooperation pact. 

June 15 — The U.N. Security Council extended for 6 months the life of the 
U.N. Peace Force in Cyprus. 

June 16 — U.N. Secretary General Waldheim, acting under the new Security 
Council resolution renewing the mandate of the U.N. Peace Force in 
Cyprus, moved to arrange an early resumption of talks between the 
Greek and Turkish-Cypriot communities. 

June 16 — President Ford in a message to Congress requested approval and 
authorization of appropriations to implement the United States-Turkish 
defense cooperation agreement. 

June 21 — According to Bayrak Radio, National Unity Party (NUP) leader 
Rauf Denktas was elected President in the Turkish-Cypriot elections. 

June 24 — The Washington Post reported that discussions were held between 
Romania and Turkey on Cyprus, the Middle East and other issues. In 
those discussions, Fahri Koruturk of Turkey said his country wanted 
the Cyprus issue settled between the two Cypriot communities and not 
through international talks. 

July 1 — The Washington Post reported that several Greek naval vessels had 
moved into Aegean waters near the Greek island of Lesbos, close to 
the Turkish coast, where a Turkish survey vessel was expected to begin 
prospecting for oil in early July. 



147 



July 6 — According to Bayrak Radio, in response to a statement by U.S. 
Ambassador to Athens Kubisch that all foreign forces in Cyprus should 
withdraw from the island, the Turkish Foreign Ministry announced 
that the withdrawal of Turkish forces from Cyprus was out of the 
question. 

July S — The Washington Post reported that the Greek-Cypriot National 
Guard had gone on alert following an increase in tension between 
Greece and Turkey over the Aegean Sea. 

July 13 — According to Ankara Domestic Service, U.N. Secretary General 
Waldheim's Special Representative in Cyprus, Perez de Cuellar, 
arrived in Ankara to hold talks on the Cyprus issue. De Cuellar said 
that he would confer with Greek Government officials in Athens after 
his contacts in Ankara and that he would then submit the results of his 
talks to Secretary General Waldheim. 

July 14 — According to a Turkish Embassy statement, Turkish Foreign 
Minister Caglayangil stated that the Turkish Government "has repeatedly 
declared its desire to make the Aegean a sea of peace and cooperation 
between Greece and Turkey . . . We have, however, made it very 
clear that we could not accept the Aegean to be regarded as a Greek 
lake." 

July 14 — According to the Washington Post, Executive Director of the 
United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control, Ambassador J. G. Debeus, 
and other U.N. officials, said that no Turkish opium has been detected 
on the illicit world market since 1974, when Turkey abrogated its 
agreement with the United States not to cultivate the opium poppy. 
Debeus said that the Turkish cultivation control program is apparently 
working satisfactorily and that the United Nations intends to give 
Turkey an additional S3. 7 million to strengthen existing controls. 

July 16 — The London Times reported that, following an inner Cabinet meet- 
ing presided over by Greek Prime Minister Karamanlis, an official 
statement said that it was "astonishing that while we are continuing the 
contacts sought by them, the Turkish Government threatens to carry 
out seismic research in areas where it has no rio:ht to do so. It is 
evident that this would be an arbitrary act that belies Turkey's claims 
that she wishes to have a dialogue." 

July 20 — Bayrak Radio reported that Turkish-Cypriot President Rauf 
Denktas, in a speech marking the second anniversary of the Turkish 
landings in Cyprus, stated that the Greek-Cypriot policy of enosis made 
inevitable the Turkish operation on July 20, 1974. He further stated 
that the Greek-Cypriot proposal of a unitary state was unrealistic but 
that an agreement between the two Cypriot communities was possible 
in the form of a bizonal federation. 

July 20 — A Nicosia Public Information press release reported that Presi- 
dent Archbishop Makarios, in a speech at a rally on the second an- 
niversary of the Turkish invasion, said that his government would 
attempt to further internationalize the Cyprus problem if the intercom- 
munal talks fail. In addition, he said that his government would accept 
the offer of the EEC to help find a solution as long as the community's 
efforts did not conflict with the efforts of the United Nations. 



148 



July 23 — According to a Turk'sh Embassy statement, the Turkish seismic 
ship Sismik I sailed for the Aegean Sea with 40 scientists, experts, and 
crewmen on board. 

July 24 — Senator Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.) said Turkey was violating 
cease-fire provisions in Cyprus and urged President Ford to stop 
processing Turkish requests for new military equipment. 

July 26 — The Washington Post reported that Turkey was planning to order 
40 American Phantom F-4E planes during July. 

July 27 — The Washington Post reported, alluding to NATO pressures, 
that behind-the-scene negotiations were under way to allow a Turkish 
oil survey ship to test in Aegean waters without violating Greek seabed 
rights. 

July 29 — The Washington Post reported that former Turkish Prime Minister 
Bulent Ecevit, at a luncheon with reporters in the United States, said 
(1) Turkey cannot accept a Greek domination of the seabed and air- 
space in the Aegean, (2) the Turkish Government could have made 
conciliatory gestures on the Cyprus problem, and (3) that the Aegean 
dispute and the Cyprus problem could both be settled by high-level dis- 
cussions between Greece and Turkey "without U.S. interference." 

July 29 — According to the Washington Star fighting broke out among 
1,000 persons attending an election rally addressed by Glafcos derides, 
a right-wing leader of Greek-Cypriots. 

August 5 — UPI reported that congressional sources had indicated the 
United States-Turkish defense cooperation agreement would be rejected 
by a floor vote in the House of Representatives because of election-year 
politics and a lack of diplomatic progress toward a Cyprus settlement. 

August 6 — In his message to Congress on progress made toward a nego- 
tiated Cyprus settlement, President Ford stated that while limited prog- 
ress on subsidiary issues had been made through intercommunal talks, 
the central points of contention remained unresolved, and "new fric- 
tions continue to arise on the island as each side seeks to maintain 
or improve its position, either locally on the island or on the wider 
international stage." 

August 18 — It was announced that the International Court of Justice at 
The Hague would convene on August 25 to examine Greece's request 
for the court to judge its Aegean seabed dispute with Turkey. 

August 19 — The Turkish seismic ship Sismik I left the port of Izmir to 
resume seabed exploration surveys in "Turkish and international 
waters" of the Aegean. (It was reported that Greece was dispatching a 
destroyer and gunboat to shadow the Turkish vessel.) 

August 23 — Turkish Prime Minister Demirel outlined four major issues 
underlying disputes between his country and Greece: (1) the Greek 
violation of the 1959 Zurich-London Agreement that gave rise to the 
Cyprus conflict; (2) the militarization since 1964 of Greek Aegean 
islands off the Turkish coast in contravention of the 1923 Treaty of 
Lausanne and the 1947 Paris Convention; (3) unilateral claims by 
Greece over the Aegean continental shelf and air space "under the illu- 
sion that such claims would secure rights;" and (4) the "perennial 
issue" of Greek oppression of Turks in western Thrace. 



149 



August 25 — The U.N. Security Council urged Greece and Turkey to resume 
negotiations in order to settle their dispute over the search for offshore 
oil in the Aegean. (A resolution, adopted by consensus without a vote, 
also appealed to the two countries to exercise the utmost restraint, reduce 
tensions in the Aegean, and take into account such legal advice as the 
International Court of Justice could offer. After the session, the foreign 
ministers of Greece and Turkey met briefly to determine the form of 
talks between the two countries to resolve the problem.) 

August 25 — Greece requested the International Court of Justice to grant 
an injunction prohibiting Turkey from continuing seabed surveys in 
contested areas in the Aegean. 

August 26 — ^Assistant Secretary of State Arthur A. Hartman gave a briefing 
on the Aegean situation before the Senate Committee on Foreign Af- 
fairs. 

August 29 — Turkish Prime Minister Demirel said that Greece must with- 
draw its request for an injunction to the International Court of Justice 
before any direct talks on the disputed continental shelf and territorial 
waters of the Aegean could be held. (Demirel also stated that there 
could be no solution to his country's dispute with Greece over Cyprus 
"as long as Greece receives the support of the United States"; but he 
did say that Turkish Cypriot leader Denktash's intention of proclaim- 
ing an independent Turkish-Cypriot state on October 29 was not Turkish 
Government policy. ) 

August 31 — Nikos Sampson, who had been established by the ruling Greek 
junta as President of the short-lived regime that had overthrown the 
government of Archbishop Makarios in July 1974, was sentenced to 
20 years in prison by the Nicosia Assize Court. (Sampson, who, on Au- 
gust 23, had pleaded guilty to a charge of "aiding in carrying out war- 
like operations," told the court: "I do not repent what I have done.") 

September 1 — Greek naval units moved into the western Aegean after 
Turkey had issued a notice to mariners that its survey ship Sismik I 
would extend seabed exploration to the western part of that sea. 

September 1 — The Greek Government granted a request by the Turkish 
national airline to resume flights between Istanbul and Athens and Izmir 
and Athens which had been interrupted in 1974. 

September 3 — The Christian Science Monitor reported that the foreign 
ministers of Greece and Turkey would meet later in September to set up 
machinery to resolve their Aegean Sea dispute, as well as other differ- 
ences, including Turkish demands for demilitarization of Greek islands 
off the Turkish coast, air control rights over the Aegean, and the plight 
of the Turkish minority in western Thrace. 

September 5 — The Greek Cypriot coalition of centrists, socialists, and 
Communists scored a clean sweep in the parliamentary elections, winning 
34 of 35 seats on a platform of full support for Archbishop Makarios, 
with the remaining seat going to an independent. (The Conservative 
Party of Glafkos Clerides failed to win a single seat under the simple 
majority system used.) 



150 



September 7 — The Washington Post reported that a confidential staff 
report to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations recommended 
Congress defer action on the United States-Turkish Defense Cooperation 
Agreement until it was also ready to act on a similar agreement with 
Greece. 

September 11 — The International Court of Justice rejected the Greek 
Government's request for a ban on the activities of the Turkish survey 
ship Sismik I in the Aegean. 

September 15 — Under Secretary of State Habib said before the Senate 
Committee on Foreign Relations that there had been a serious loss of 
intelligence as a result of the closure of U.S. installations in Turkey. 
(Deputy Defense Secretary Ellsworth stated before the committee that 
the intelligence facilities were vital to check on Soviet military activities, 
to monitor any new SALT agreement, and to restrain the Soviet air 
force from adding air power to the naval threat in the Mediterranean.) 

September 28 — The New York Times reported that Turkish Defense Min- 
ister Ferit Melen had told a group of Western legislators that Ankara 
remained "a sincere and faithful member" of NATO, but that the 
feelings of mutual trust and confidence between Turkey and its allies — 
in particular, the United States — had suffered severe damage, and elec- 
tions in Turkey in 1977 could bring to power a government less com- 
mitted to NATO. 

October 4 — In his sixth report to Congress on progress in the Cyprus nego- 
tiations President Ford suggested a set of principles which might aid 
in a Cyprus settlement: (1) preservation of Cypriot independence, 
sovereignty, and territorial integrity; (2) reduction of the area cur- 
rently controlled by the Turkish side; (3) provision for the economic 
and humanitarian needs of the two Cypriot communities, including the 
refugees; (4) constitutional provision of self-government for the two 
Cypriot communities; and (5) withdrawal of foreign military forces 
other than the U.N. forces. 

October 6 — According to Ankara Domestic Service Turkish Foreign Min- 
ister Caglayangil, in a New York meeting with Columbia University 
professors and officials, said that the withdrawal of Turkish troops from 
Cyprus before an agreement was reached between the two Cypriot com- 
munities was out of the question. Commenting on Turkish-American 
relations, he said that immediate ratification of the Defense Cooperation 
Agreement by the Congress would: (1) reestablish productive coopera- 
tion between Turkey and the United States, and (2) contribute to the 
peaceful solution of the Cyprus problem and to disputes between Turkey 
and Greece. 

October 17 — The Washington Post reported that a meeting of the EEC- 
Turkey Association Council was postponed for the third time, under- 
scoring Turkey's growing rift with its Western allies. Turkey had hoped 
to win better conditions for its exports and workers in Europe. 

October 18 — According to Ankara Domestic Service the International Court 
of Justice has given a delay of 12 months to Turkey and of 7 months 
to Greece to state whether they accept the court's jurisdiction on the 
Turkish-Greek dispute over the issue of oil exploration in the Aegean 
Sea. 



151 



October 26 — Ankara Domestic Service reported that the Turkish-Greek 
talks on the Aegean continental shelf will resume in Bern, Switzerland, 
on November 2, and issues related to Aegean airspace were expected to 
be discussed during talks in Paris between Turkish and Greek technical 
delegations on the same date. 

October 30 — The Washington Post reported that Turkish Foreign Minister 
Caglayangil had publicly suggested for the first time the formation of 
an interim government on Cyprus bringing together the island's divided 
Greek and Turkish communities. 

November 1 — The Washington Post reported that the Turkish-Cypriots had 
accelerated their efforts to expel the ethnic Greeks from northern Cyprus. 
The campaign came at a time when prospects for serious negotiations 
and a political solution appeared bleak. 

November 10 — According to the Washington Post, the United States, in a 
public gesture of support for Turkey, voted in favor of a U.N. motion 
that if it had passed would have allowed Rauf Denktash, president of the 
Turkish-Cypriot state, to speak during the U.N. General Assembly debate 
on Cyprus. 

November 13 — The New York Times reported the approval of a U.N. Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution which ( 1 ) demanded the withdrawal of Turkish 
troops occupying the northern part of the island, (2) called for an end 
to foreign interference, and (3) requested Secretary General Kurt 
Waldheim to renew efforts to secure a resumption of negotiations between 
the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities. The resolution was ap- 
proved 94^1 with 27 abstentions. The United States and Western 
European countries abstained. 

November 13 — The Los Angeles Times reported the concern of State Depart- 
ment officials that an impending Soviet-Turkish "declaration of political 
principles," to be signed in the next few months, could further erode 
Turkey's already tenuous association with NATO. The signing of such a 
document by the Turkish Government was further viewed by U.S. officials 
as a reaction to the prospect that the incoming Democratic administra- 
tion may follow a pro-Greek policy. 

November 17 — The Washington Post reported that during talks at Bern, 
Switzerland, Turkey and Greece had reached an agreement that would 
freeze their conflict on the Aegean Sea until a negotiated settlement was 
reached. This meant that the two sides would not engage in research or 
exploitation of possible oil deposits in disputed regions of the Aegean 
Sea. 

November 23 — The Washington Post reported that a joint communique 
issued from talks at Athens said that Greece and Turkey had failed to 
agree on the reopening of air corridors over the Aegean Sea, closed in 
1974 when Turkey invaded Cyprus; but the two sides had agreed to 
reopen a telephone line between civilian aviation commanders. 

December 1 — Bayrak Rad^'o reported that Turkish-Cypriot President 
Denktash had called for resumption of the intercommunal negotiations. 



152 



December 3 — The Christian Science Monitor reported that, in a meeting 
with the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, President-elect Carter 
had said he thought the U.S. military bases in Turkey were "important" 
and that he would hope that the United States might try to ratify an 
agreement with both Greece and Turkey "to continue an adequate mili- 
tary presence in those countries." Regarding reported enthusiastic cele- 
brations by Greek-Cypriots over his election Carter said: "... I think 
the celebration was perhaps unwarranted if it was an assumption that 
I would lack objectivity." (Carter's statements to Greek communities in 
the United States during the election campaign led many Greeks to be- 
lieve he would favor them in their dispute with the Turks over Cyprus.) 

December 9 — It was reported that Secretary of State-designate Vance ex- 
changed views in New York with Gladfkos Clerides, Chairman of the 
Greek-Cypriot Unified Party. 

December 11 — According to Athens Domestic Service, Greek Foreign 
Minister Bitsios and Turkish Foreign Minister Caglayangil met at NATO 
headquarters in Brussels and reviewed progress in the Bern negotiations 
on the Aegean continental shelf and the Paris talks on airspace. The joint 
communique issued after the meeting indicated that Cyprus had not been 
discussed — an issue which they had earlier agreed to review. 

December 13 — It was reported that Secretary of State-designate Vance 
had sent messages to the Greek and Turkish Foreign Ministers who met 
in Brussels concerning their disputes which involve the United States 
such as the Cyprus and Aegean problems. 

December 14 — Bayrak Radio reported that Turkey and the Soviet Union 
initialed a 10-year cooperation agreement which provided for coopera- 
tion between the two countries in the fields of energy, oil refining, and 
iron and steel and aluminum production. Reports from Moscow said 
that Turkey and the Soviet Union also signed two more protocols cover- 
ing trade and development. 

December 14 — The London Times reported that U.N. military documents 
disclosed that Turkish and Turkish-Cypriot authorities had systematically 
looted Greek-Cypriot property in the Turkish-occupied northern part of 
Cyprus. 

December 22 — According to the Christ 'an Science Monitor Turkish Prime 
Minister Demirel said in a recent press conference that recent statements 
made by President-elect Carter and the appointment of Cyrus Vance to 
be his Secretary of State indicated to him that Carter would follow a 
"realistic" policy toward Turkey. 



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